Rhoeadales:
Disbanded!
REBECCA S. FRANKLIN
Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, Department of Geosciences, University
of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721
rebecca@ltrr.arizona.edu
Outline
• Location of families in Rhoeadales in
Engler (1936) v. Cronquist (1988) v. APG II
(2003)
• Description of families in Engler’s
Rhoeadales, unifying characteristics. (many
not covered in class)
• Regrouping in Cronquist, APG II
Engler & Diels 1936
• Division Embryophyta
• Sub-division Angiospermae
• Class Dicotyledonae
• Order Rhoeadales
• Families
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Papaveraceae
Fumariaceae
Capparidaceae (Capparaceae)
Brassicaceae
Tovariaceae
Resedaceae
Moringaceae
Bretschneideraceae
The disbanding and regrouping
Family
Engler (1936)
Cronquist (1988)
APG II (2003)
Papaveraceae
Rhoeadales
Papaverales
Ranunculales
Fumariaceae
Rhoeadales
Papaverales
Ranunculales
Capparidaceae
(Cappadaceae)
Rhoeadales
Capparales
Brassicales (in
Brassicaceae)
Brassicaceae
Rhoeadales
Capparales
Brassicales
Tovariaceae
Rhoeadales
Capparales
Brassicales
Resedaceae
Rhoeadales
Capparales
Brassicales
Moringaceae
Rhoeadales
Capparales
Brassicales
Bretschneideraceae Rhoeadales
Sapindales
Brassicales (in
Akaniaceae)
Papaveraceae
Fumariaceae
Capparaceae
Brassicaceae
Brassicaceae
Tovariaceae
Resedaceae
Moringaceae
Moringa spp.
Bretschneideraceae
(in Akaniaceae)
Bretschneidera spp.
Engler’s morphological circumscription
:
• Families have :
– Cymose or panniculate inflorescences
– Highly dissected simple leaves (compound)
– Numerous stamens
Cronquist (1988)
• Papaverales
• Capparales
– Papaveraceae
– Fumariaceae
•
•
•
•
•
2 sepals
3-aperature pollen
Absence of ethereal
oils
Recent origin
Isoquinoloine alkaloids
–
–
–
–
–
•
•
•
•
•
Capparaceae
Brassicaceae
Tovariaceae
Resedaceae
Moringaceae
Compound leaves
Parietal placentation
Presences of
glucosinolates
Mustard oil!
Hypogynous
• Sapindales
– Bretschneideraceae
•
•
•
•
•
Compound/cleft leaves
Haplostemonous/diplostemo
-nous androecium
Well developed nectary disk
Syncarpous ovary (1-2
ovules per)
(Char indiv. In Rosales but
not all together)
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II (2003)
• Ranunculales
• Brassicales
– Capparaceae (in
– Papaveraceae
– Fumariaceae
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• (Berberidaceae)
• (Ranunculaceae)
Combined Ranunculales +
Papaverales
Herbaceous
Toothed/lobed/compound
leaves
Presence of alkaloids
(isoquinoline type)
Hypogynous, parts free and
distince
Numerous stamens
Seeds w/tiny embryos
Copious endosperm
Brassicaceae)
–
–
–
–
–
Brassicaceae
Tovariaceae
Resedaceae
Moringaceae
Bretschneideraceae
(in Akaniaceae)
•
•
•
•
•
Monophyly of Brassicales
and Capparales based on
chloroplast sequence
Mustard oils! (glucosinolates)
4-merous flowers,
tetradynamous stamens
Seeds with curved/folded
embryos
Lacking/nearly lacking
endosperm
–
(5-merous straight embryos,
parietal plac, endosperm in
Moringaceae & Akariaceae)
End
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Rhoeadales: Disbanded! - Laboratory of Tree