Generic Adaptation Process
Evgeny Knutov
Paul De Bra
Mykola Pechenizkiy
GAF project: Generic Adaptation Framework
(project is supported by NWO)
Agenda
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Adaptation process modeling
AH classification and adaptation cycle
AHS evolution
GAF layers
Generic Flowchart
GAF sequence chart
Use-cases
Conclusions
/ Department of Computer Science
9-4-2015
PAGE 1
Adaptation process modeling:
Classic loop user modeling - adaptation
Generic Adaptivity Model
GOMAWE
Munich Model: Lifecycle of Adaptation
/ Department of Computer Science
9-4-2015
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Classification of AH methods and techniques;
adaptation process highlights:
• Classification of AH
methods and
techniques integrated
with adaptation
process cycle
• Basis for the AHS
layered structure
/ Department of Computer Science
9-4-2015
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AHS evolution:
• Generalize AHS functionality in GAF
• Enhance GAF layered structure with the process
• Generalize adaptation process in GAF
/ Department of Computer Science
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Rotating GAF layered model:
• GAF aligns the order of the
layers in the system according
to the classification of AH
methods and techniques
• Rotate layered structure of
GAF and match with adaptation
process flowcharts
GAF layered structure
/ Department of Computer Science
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Adaptation process:
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Generic representation of the process
Aligned it with the traditional ‘adaptation questions’
Provides a flowchart diagram of a generic AHS
Align the layers of AHS in a sequence chart
Matched flow and sequence charts
Reference Adaptation Process
/ Department of Computer Science
09/04/2015
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Generic Flowchart (example):
(4) saving goal to follow in UM
current user goal is prestored in UM
preparing instance of UM to
work with and current goal
(acquiring full user profile)
(5)
• 3 main blocks:
acquiring next concept
(void in case one-at-a-step
adaptation)
+ associated events
adaptation
condition
true
false
concept-content-adaptation interaction
triggering a rule
(from rule repository)
acquiring corresponding
content/frame/info unit
acquiring corresponding
content (info units)
processing information unit
(content/links from frames/
pages/ etc.)
(8)
Adaptation
Model
applying adaptation
techniques
(7)
(6)
presentation generation
showing info/content to the
user
Presentation
Model
navigation adaptation
...
content adaptation
(4)
update user knowledge/
properties
store intermediate user
progress
User
model
proceed to
the next step
• goal acquisition,
• adaptive functionality
• test-feedback loop
• Mapped on the layered
structure of GAF model
• Mapped on the Adaptation
process sequence chart
(see process numbers and GAF
sequence chart further)
updating user goal
progress
/ Department of Computer Science
9-4-2015
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Key elements of GAF sequence chart:
• Layered structure preserved in a sequence
• Layers aligned with adaptation questions
• Layers aligned with process and generic flowchart
• Layers determine (de) composition of the GAF model
/ Department of Computer Science
9-4-2015
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GAF sequence chart:
Classification of AH
Methods and
Techniques;
adaptation process
highlights
When?
To What?
What?
How?
Where?
Defining user
(1)
goal
Passing
content to be
rendered and
presented
Aligning goal with
(2)
Domain Model
Initiating adaptation (3)
Presentation Model
(6)
Application Model
User Model
Domain Model
UM-DM
overlay
sustainability
(4)
Adaptation Model
Retrieving/updating
UM state
Retrieving concept
corresponding domain (5)
information (hierarchy,
resources, meta data, etc.)
Context Model
Goal Model
(7)
Invoking
adaptation
methods and
techniques
Interaction
requires reply
Acquiring
resources
(content) for
the concept
(8)
User Context
Defining
usage context
Group
(9)
formation
/ Department of Computer Science
Usage Context
Passing data/
control to other
sub-system
Maintaining
and
Acquiring
Adaptive rules
of higher order
Considering
usage context
Maintaining and
updating HOA with
system usage data
Group Model
Legend:
Resource Model
Acquiring user
context
Higher Order Adaptation
Why?
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Use-case 1: Adaptive course:
user states goal
User stated goal is
translated into
system internal
goal (from what
user chooses (link,
project, etc.) to
system conceptual
representation)
translating goal into
system internal
presentation
goals acquisition/projects, etc.
(mapped from DM)
acquiring next step: (goal/test/
concept)
Resources
repository
content
acquisition
required
granularity module
(detailed
elaboration)
overlay
DM
elaboration?
not req.
rules repository
goal (detailing, hierarchy,
trail)
concept adaptation
(content/concept AE
functionality)
tests
UM
Rules repository:
1) concept
adaptation rules
2) goal elaboration
rules
3) test rules (rules
to organize and
follow up with the
test procedures)
Can be considered
as a part of AE
UM
concept-content
adaptation
sequence
(see Figure 10)
UM retrieve/update
go to the next step of
adaptation, elaboration
acquiring rules
presentation generation
(content sequence/goal
sequence, etc.)
In case goal or
concept structure is
not detailed
enough – goal
elaboration rules
will be applied
 ‘next’ goal / concept /
test main loop
 granularity module
 concept-content
adaptation sequence
 presentation
generation
yes
Adaptation finished?
Granularity
module
• Generic Flowchart
compliance
As an output we have:
- detailed goal sequence (matched with project, etc)
- detailed sequence of content chunks, frames, etc.
- test sequence (covering designated course)
/ Department of Computer Science
9-4-2015
PAGE 10
Use-case 2: WWW Search:
• Sequence chart (GAP) compliance with the search
process:
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Goal Model – defines search query
Domain Model – defines search index
Resource model - WWW
Context Models – defines user and usage context
properties (IP, user profile, etc.)
• Group Model – defines user collaborative profile
• Adaptation and Application models – define search
engine and ranking mechanisms
/ Department of Computer Science
9-4-2015
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Use-case 2: WWW Search sequence chart:
User Profile
AHS
Overlay
Model
Defining User – stating
the query
user goal
Ranking
Passing
content to be
rendered and
presented
Interpreting
Query
(refolmulation,
extern lex., etc.)
Initiating
adaptation
AH
methods and
techniques
Acquiring
resources for
the concepts
/ Department of Computer Science
www
Group
formation
Maintaining
collaborative
profile
User Context
Usage Context
index
Search
Defining the and Result
usage context history
Group Model
Crawler
Resource Model
IP, profile, etc.
Considering
usage context
Adaptation Model
Acquiring user
context
Application Model
Context Model
UM-DM
overlay
sustainability
Invoking
adaptation
Methods and
techniques
Accumulating user
search history
Retrieving/updating
UM state
User Model
Domain Model
Goal Model
parsing query
Retrieving concept
corresponding domain
information (hierarchy,
resources, meta data)
User Interface:
Presenting search
results, snippets,
ranking info., etc.
Presentation Model
Aligning goal with
the Domain
Search
Engine
Maintaining
and
Acquiring
Adaptive rules
of higher order
Maintaining and
updating HOA with
system usage data
9-4-2015
Higher Order Adaptation
Search Query
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Conclusions:
• Generic Adaptation Process
• Conformity of the adaptation process sequence and
flowchart approaches
• Layered process-based (de)composition of an
adaptive system
• Building Block of a User-Adaptive System process
/ Department of Computer Science
9-4-2015
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Further work:
• Elaborate process description and extend generic
adaptation process emphasizing new developments
in AH
• Align adaptation sequence chart with other useradaptive systems (e.g. Recommender systems)
• Emphasize interoperability of the new AH
developments in the context of the process (e.g.
open corpus adaptation, higher order adaptation,
etc.)
/ Department of Computer Science
9-4-2015
PAGE 14
Thanks!
and
Questions?
/ Department of Computer Science
9-4-2015
PAGE 15
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