RESEARCH PROCESS:
AN OVERVIEW
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
Stages In The Research Process
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Problem Formulation and Problem Definition
Research Design***
Purpose of the Study
Type of investigation
Study setting : Population & Sampling
Unit of analysis
Time horizon: Cross sectional vs longitudinal
Data Processing and Analysis
Managerial implications (Reporting)
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INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
Characteristics of Good Research
Clearly defined purpose
Detailed research process
Thoroughly planned design
High ethical standards
Limitations addressed
Adequate analysis
Unambiguous presentation
Conclusions justified
Credentials
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INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
Characteristics of Good Research
Understand
• that research is decision- and
dilemma-centered
• that the clarified research question is the
result of careful exploration and analysis
and sets the direction for the research
project
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INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
Research Process
Basic Assumption
• every effect has a cause
• Starts with the construction of hypotheses from casual
observations and background knowledge (inductive
reasoning) to reasoning out consequences or
implications of hypotheses (deductive reasoning),
followed by testing of the implications and confirmation or
rejection of the hypotheses.
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INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
Research Process: The Scientific Method
• Step 1: State the Problem (Problem
Formulation)
• Step 2: Background & Literature study about
the problem. (Literature Review)
• Step 3: Form a Hypothesis (Statement of
Prediction)
• Step 4: Do experiment that test the
hypothesis. (Analysis & Findings)
• Step 5: Draw a conclusion.
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INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
Research Process
Problem
discovery
Problem Discovery
and Definition
Selection of
exploratory research
technique
Sampling
Selection of
exploratory research
technique
Secondary
(historical)
data
Experience
survey
Probability
Pilot
study
Case
study
Data
Gathering
Data
Processing
and
Analysis
Problem definition
(statement of
research objectives)
Experiment
Laboratory
Conclusions
and Report
Survey
Field
Interview
Collection of
data
(fieldwork)
Editing and
coding
data
Data
processing
Selection of
basic research
method
Research Design
Nonprobability
Questionnaire
Observation
Secondary
Data Study
Interpretation
of
findings
Report
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INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
Example 4: System development methodology
Content in Chapter 3 (Examples)
Proposal 1
• Introduction
• Research design
– What to do and how it
should be done
• Operational frame work
– Flowchart
– Gantt chart (the whole
project)
• Software and Hardware
requirement
• Summary
Proposal 2
•
Introduction
– Research Design
• Interpretive Research
• Quantitative and Qualitative
Research
• Triangulation
– Case Study Research
• Multiple Case Study Approach
–
–
–
–
–
Operational Framework
Subjects or Data Source
Instrumentation
Pilot Testing and Data Analysis
Assumptions & Limitations of the
Methodology
– Research Planning and Schedule
Description of Research Activities: Suggested Format
Phase
Objectives
Instrument/
method
Duration optional – specified in Gantt chart
See example…
Deliverables
Example 1: quantitative study
Activities
Design
Data Collection
Analysis
Phase 4: The Survey (April 06 – January 07)
Objectives
Methods/Tools
Deliverables
 To design survey questionnaire
 Academic
 Survey
 To identify HEIs for survey
computing rubrics
questionnaire
 List of HEIs from
the MOHE
website
 To conduct survey on HEIs
 Survey
 Returned survey
questionnaire
forms
 HEIs mailing
information
 Microsoft Access




Findings


To analyse framework structure
To test hypotheses on framework
relationships
To analyse academic computing
performance at HEIs
To rank HEIs based on academic
computing performance
To revise framework
To identify state of academic
computing and general trends





PCA
Reliability
analysis
Correlation
analysis
ANOVA
SPSS, Excel


Framework v3
Benchmark
information
Example 2: qualitative study
Phase 4: The Case Studies (April 07 – June 08)
Activities
Objectives
Methods/Tools Deliverables
Data Collection  To conduct case studies
 Interview
 Interview transcripts
 To gather data
 Observation  Document and
s
observation memo
 Documents
analysis
 Tape
recorder
Analysis
 To analyse collected data to  Nvivo 8
 Analysis result
understand the overall
studied context and to
identify appropriation
criteria
Findings
 To update the existing
 Updates of
identified criteria from the
appropriation criteria
pilot case studies and
preliminary survey
Managing The Research
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
Gantt Chart
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INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
Types of Ethical Violations
Violating
disclosure
agreements
Misrepresenting
results
Breaking
confidentiality
Deceiving
participants
Plagarism
Avoiding
legal liability
April2009
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INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS