UNIVERSITY OF UDINE, ITALY
Grapevine breeding for resistance
to downy and powdery mildew at
the University of Udine
Enrico PETERLUNGER, Gabriele DI GASPERO,
Simone CASTELLARIN, Raffaele TESTOLIN
Department of Agricultural and
Environmental Sciences
___________________________________________
Project INNOWINE kickoff, June 21°, 2012, Novi Sad
Modern viticulture is depending strongly upon
 pesticides.
Vineyards in Europe on
3.3% of total agricultural land
but to preserve the grapes it is applied
65% of all fungicides used in agriculture,
farmers
damage for
- man
consumers
- environment
- economy of the crop
Fungicide consumption in France
Fungicides (France)
45000
40000
35000
30000
Tonnes de matières actives
Cereales
25000
Grapevine
20000
Other crops
15000
10000
5000
0
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
Years
1997
1998
1999
How did all this start?
• Most cultivated grape varieties are > 200 years old
• Minimum contribution from breeding
• Limited variability, also reduced by clonal selection
• Plants and their pathogens co-evolute
in a continous struggle for life
• one species not able of reproduction is
destined to succumb
• Man can help that species to survive
but such a choice has a cost ...........
A brief hystory
from North America
-Phylloxera
1878
-Powdery mildew
1845
-Downy mildew
1868
Phylloxera  grafting onto resistant rootstocks
 breeding for resistant rootstock
PM, DM  breeding for
resistant cultivars,
hybrids such as
Isabella, Noah,
Clinton, Baco…
but…
Resistance was achieved
Quality was not satisfactory
About 1960 Europe decided to ban hybrids
except…
eventual new selections “comparable”
to vinifera
Sources of resistance to diseases
•  30 American species (V. riparia, V. rupestris, Muscadinia )
•  30 Asian species (V. amurensis, …)
• monogenic (non-host, HR)
• poligenic
origin of sources of resistance
Powdery mildew (ren1)
Kishmish vatkana
Downy mildew
Powdery mildew
Downy mildew
Powdery mildew?
the breeding lines
susceptible (S)
Chardonnay
Cabernet S.
Merlot
Sauvignon
Sangiovese
Tocai
...
resistant (R)
Bianca
20/3
Regent
Seyval
Pannonia
SK-00-1/2
...
Demasculation and controlled pollination
The workplan
•
•
•
•
800+ accessions introduced into the repository
270 + cross combinations
16.000+ seedlings under evaluation
Selection for
- resistance
- agronomical features
- quality of musts
advanced evaluation
• nano-vinification of > 200 selections at UIV (VR)
• wine testing for up to three years
• advanced evaluation for 15 selections at VCR in Fossalon
[2010]
several advanced selections
Vc 80.024
tocai x bianca
Vc 58.083
cab s x bianca
Vc 55.084
sauv x bianca
Vc 32.078
cab s x 20/3
Vc 80.111
tocai x bianca
Vc 34.004
tocai x 20/3
Vc 31.125
Vc 31.122
merlot x 20/3
merlot x 20/3
Vc 80.100
tocai x bianca
Vc 57.001
merlot x bianca
Vc 55.100
sauv x bianca
Future development
of the breeding program
to combine together more than one resistence
• combining resistences to different pathogens
• combining more resistences to the same pathogen
• 2 sources of resistance to downy and 2 to powdery mildew
to differentiate the product
• sparkling base
• long-lasting wines
• dessert wines
• table grape
• ...
The new frontiers of selection:
the marker-assisted selection
- Genome sequencing
- No GMO
- The selection is not carried out on phenotypic characters
but on genes controlling them (e.g. resistance)
X
GTACGG
GTACGG
GTACGT
GTACGG
GTACGT
GTACGT
GTACGG
GTACGG
GTACGT
GTACGG
The new frontiers of selection:
the selection for the aromatic profiles
7
TOF MS EI+
TIC
2.00e5
3562_16
16.25
33.65
30.81
%
bianca
14.07
19.25
34.06
13.56
20.15
2
12.00
3562_14
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
21.11 22.38
45.83
33.11
24.93
24.00
22.00
38.82
29.48
24.36
27.79
26.00
28.00
36.31
30.00
32.00
34.00
36.00
37.85
38.00
39.47
40.00
42.00
44.00
46.00
TOF MS EI+
TIC
2.78e5
16.26
chardonnay
%
30.81
33.65
14.07
24.93
19.25
13.57
1
12.00
20.07
23.80 24.36
29.48
25.15
22.38
34.06
33.11
27.79
37.42
38.82
39.47
45.82
Time
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
22.00
24.00
26.00
28.00
30.00
32.00
34.00
36.00
38.00
40.00
42.00
44.00
46.00
- The impact of traditional viticulture needs to
be considered
- A more healthy viticulture with lower
production cost can be done,
without forgetting tradition
- The value of our products
is the territory,
with our tradition
and skills
- A resistant cultivar
can help future viticulture
to be more sustainable
Research conducted in cooperation with
IGA- INSTITUTE OF APPLIED GENOMICS - Udine
and
• Institute of Viticulture, Pécs, Hungary
• Missouri State University, USA
• INRA, Colmar, France
• Université de Strasbourg, France
• Genoscope, Paris, France
• Institut für Rebenzüchtung, Geilweilerhof, Germany
• University of Geisenheim, Germany
• Unione Italiana Vini, Verona, Italy
• University of Verona, Italy
• CRA Istituto di Viticoltura, Conegliano, Italy
Support from
• Region Friuli Venezia Giulia
• MiPAF Projects Vigna & Vigneto
• MiUR strategic projects PRIN
• Vivai Cooperativi di Rauscedo
• Banche di Credito Cooperativo of FVG
• CR of Udine, Gorizia, Trieste
• Consorzio Collio
• Winemakers Felluga L, Felluga M, Zamò, Venica
Thanks for your attention!
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Grapevine breeding for resistance to downy and powdery