Research Methodology
Session 11
Research Design
Sampling
Latest Schedule (1)
Date
19 - 23 April
26 – 30 April
3 – 7 May
10 – 14 May
Tuesday/
Friday
Wednesday
RP
Academic Writing
Presentation
9.00
Sampling
Lit Review due
Ethical Clearance
IBM Awards
Presentations
Evening
RP due
Lecture on EC
TEDx
Latest Schedule (2)
Date
RM
17 - 21 May
EC (19 May)
24 - 28 May
HRMG (24
May)
MIS (27 May)
SE (2 June)
Medical (4 June)
31 May - 4 June
7 - 11 June
Exams
EC Corrections
(11 June)
Recap
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Assignments
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Language feedback
Language self-reflection
Structural PS -> RO -> RQ
Sub-problems => hypotheses / research
questions
Presentation
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Participation
Feedback
Preview
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Sekaran Ch 10
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Sampling
Final research proposal assignment
Ethical Clearance assignment
Preparation for 3 – 7 May session
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Proposal presentation
Acknowledgments to Uma Sekaran
Acknowledgments to Uma Sekaran
Acknowledgments to Uma Sekaran
Sampling Techniques
Probability Sampling
Simple
Random
Sampling
Systematic
Random
Sampling
Proportional
Sampling
Stratified
Random
Sampling
Cluster
Sampling
Nonproportional
Sampling
Advantage: When done correctly, a small percentage of the
population can be selected which saves both time and money
without sacrificing accuracy.
Disadvantage: Population characteristics may be over- or underrepresented, leading to a generalization of results beyond the
characteristics of the sample. This puts the validity at risk.
Acknowledgments to Gill Hendry
Acknowledgments to Uma Sekaran
Nonprobability
Sampling
Convenience
Sampling
Purposeful
Sampling
Quota
Sampling
Advantages:
•
Easy to administer
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Less costly and time consuming
Disadvantages:
•
The generalizability of the findings are limited to the
characteristics of the subjects in the sample.
•
The sample may be biased.
• Snowball sampling
Acknowledgments to Gill Hendry
Acknowledgments to Uma Sekaran
Acknowledgments to Uma Sekaran
Sekaran Ch 10 Exercises
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Ex 1
Ex 10
Research Proposal
Assessment Criteria (1)
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The research proposal (RP) is formulated
clearly
The RP contains a proper title page
The RP contains a proper table of contents
The presentation of the RP complies with
academic standards
The RP contains an appropriate brief
introduction
Research Proposal
Assessment Criteria (2)
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The context of the research project is
presented concisely and clearly in the RP
The RP contains a proper problem
statement
The RP contains properly formulated
objectives derived from the PS
A preliminary literature review places this
study within a broader research context
Research Proposal
Assessment Criteria (3)
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The RP concisely outlines how the final
literature survey will be conducted
The RP contains tentative critical questions
aligned with the PS and objectives
The RP concisely states why the research is
important for the discipline
The RP outlines what research
methodology will be employed
Research Proposal
Assessment Criteria (4)
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The RP clearly states how the research will
comply with ethical requirements
The RP clearly states how respondents /
interviewees will be selected
The RP briefly states how primary data will
be analysed
The RP clearly states which factors would
require limitation of validity of results
Research Proposal
Assessment Criteria (5)
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The RP contains a glossary of terms
The RP provides a research timeline
The RP includes a realistic budget
The RP contains an appropriate
bibliography (e.g. key articles & research
methodology references)
Sampling in your Project
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Population and approximate size
Sampling choice
Sample size
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For your study
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Ethical Clearance
Things to do
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Design draft questionnaire / interview
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Submit for comment
Sent for statistical feedback after EC approved
Complete EC form – extract from RP
Informed consent letter
Templates provided – adapt
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Letters
Questionnaire
Ethical Clearance
Assessment Criteria (1)
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The research instrument (RI) is formulated
in concise and lucid academic language
The questions in the RI are based on the
critical research questions of the project
The RI solicits appropriate types of
information
The questionnaire uses the appropriate
measurement scales
Ethical Clearance
Assessment Criteria (2)
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The RI is presented in an aesthetically
pleasing manner
The RI is designed specifically with
respondents in mind
The letter of informed consent complies
with UKZN ethical clearance research
principles
Ethical Clearance
Assessment Criteria (3)
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The RI presents questions in an
appropriate order (e.g. sensitive questions
last)
The ethical clearance application form has
been completed correctly
Next Session 3 - 7 May
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Research proposal presentations
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Supervisors present
10 minutes max plus questions/comment
Participation assessed
Pre-load presentations 20 minutes before start
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