Agricultural Extension
Aged 4713
Fall 2002
Manuel Corro
1
In this class we will learn about:
 Definition of Extension
 Importance of Extension in Ag. Development
 Elements for a Effective Agricultural
Extension Service
 Alternative models in organizing Agricultural
Extension in developing countries
2
Agricultural research is important
because:
 Help to improve development
 economic growth
 poverty alleviation
 rural development
 improve management of natural resources
 Ag research is central for boosting
productivity
 It is the primary engine of the economic
growth
3
Importance of Agriculture in
Economic Development
 Increase the supply of food for consumption
 Release labor for industrial employment
 Enlarge the size of the market for industrial
output
 Increase the supply of domestic savings; and
 Earn foreign exchange
Eicher and Staatz, 1998
4
Definition of Extension
 Extension is an on-going process that have
two dimensions:
 Communication
 Educational
 Communicate useful information to people
 Assist people to acquire the knowledge to
use the information or technology
 Extension or non-formal education can be used in
agriculture and non-agric. programs
Swanson and Claar, 1984
5
Agricultural Extension
 Agricultural Extension is an on-going process
that Communicate useful information to the
people and assist them to use the
information or technology to improve the
quality of their life, their families and
communities.
Swanson and Claar, 1984
6
The Adoption Process
(AKAP sequence)
 A: Farmer awareness
 K: Farmer knowledge
 Testing, and
 Experimenting
 A: Farmer adoption of technology or
practices
 P: Changes in farmers’ productivity
7
Conditions for a successful
Agricultural Extension Service
 Organized Information based on
accumulated knowledge and/or
research, suitable for a particular
environment.
 Information used to educate
professional agriculturists. (higher
education in Ag)
 Appropriate funds and administrative
organization structure
 Legislative or official mandate that
prescribes Agricultural Extension
8
Elements for an Effective
Agricultural Extension Service
 Extension Agent
 Good communication skills
 Good technical knowledge
 Teaching method
 Demonstration
• Methods
• Results
• Type
 Supporting Funds
 Infrastructure
9
How is Extension doing in
Developing countries?
10
The Many Faces of Extension in
Developing Countries
 Because extension is a process it can be
organized in different ways.
 Extension may be implemented by the
public or private sector
 Public sector has more Educational
purposes (broader)
 Private extension service main purpose is
to transfer technology (narrow)
11
Agricultural Extension is not a one-shot
effort.
 It entails a continuos, long term
process of contact with farmers to
understand their production
conditions and to guide research to
develop recommendations that
respond to farmers’ needs.
Benor D., Harrison J. Q., Baxter M. 1984
12
General Problems with Extension
in Developing Countries
 Organization
 Dilution of Effort
 Coverage and Mobility
 Demonstrations
 Training
 Unspecialized Staff
 Lack of Ties with research
 Status of Extension Personnel
 Duplication of Services
13
Who does Extension in Developing
countries?
 Federal government trough Ministry of
Agriculture conducted most of the extension
work in Developing Countries
But, other institutions could be involved:
 Private Sector
 Agricultural Universities
 Non-governmental Organizations
14
Alternative Models to Organizing
Extension
General models

Ministry-Based General Extension
 Training and Visit Extension (T&V)
World Bank

University-Based Extension
 Agricultural Universities (Land grant
system)
15
Alternative Models to Organizing
Extension
 Extension to selected clientele
 Commodity based Extension
 Extension as a Commercial Service
 Participatory Extension services
16
Training & Visit system
 Its goal was to improve Ministry based
Extension system in developing countries
 Developed by Daniel Benor in 1970’s
 Supported by World Bank loans
 A professional system of extension based on
frequently updated training of extension
workers and regular field visits. (T&V)
17
Commodity based Extension
 an example of private Extension service in
Mexico
 Nestle Dairy Company Extension service
 Goal: improve quality of milk supplied to
Nestle factory
 Extension agent: Nestle employee
 Clientele: small and medium dairy producers
 Company provides some inputs ( feed, vet
medicine, as loan
18
Download

Research & Extension - Oklahoma State University