REVIEW OF THE
LITERATURE
授課老師:任維廉
報告者:蕭宜家
2012/4/18
作者介紹
2
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John W. Creswell
Professor of Educational Psychology
at University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
He specializes in qualitative and quantitative research
designs and methods, multimethod research.
Outline
3
1. The research topic
2. The literature review
2.1 The use of the literature
2.2 Design Techniques
2.3 The definition of terms
2.4 A quantitative or mixed methods literature review
3. Summary
1. The Research Topic
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The topic is the subject or subject matter of proposed
study.
Draft a brief title to the study
 Try to complete this sentence, ”My study is
about…”
 Creating title
 Be brief and avoid wasting words
 Make sure it includes the topic of the study
Pose the topic as a brief question
1. The Research Topic
5
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Whether the topic can and should be researched ?
Can
 If researcher have participants willing to serve in
the study.
 If investigators have resources to collect data and
can analyze the information.
Should
 Whether anyone outside the researcher’s own
immediate institution or area would be interested in
the topic.
 Researcher’s personal goal
2. The Literature Review
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It shares with the reader the results of other studies.
It provides a framework for establishing the
importance of the study as well as a benchmark for
comparing the results with other findings.
Should be brief and summarize the major literature
on the research problem.
2.1 The Use of The Literature
7
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Qualitative research
 The
literature is a manner consistent with the
assumption of learning from the participant.
 Need to be answered from the researcher’s standpoint.

Quantitative research
 Provides
direction for questions or hypotheses.
 Introduce a problem or to describe the existing
literature.
 Compare finding.

Mixed methods study
2.2 Design Techniques-
Step in conducting a literature review
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Identify key word.
Search the databases.
Try to find about 50 reports of research or books
related to your topic.
Skim and duplicate those that central your topic.
Identify useful literature. (literature map)
Draft summaries of the most relevant articles.
Assemble the literature review
2.2 Design Techniques-
Search computerized databases
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ERIC
Google scholar
Commercial database
 ProQuest
 Sociological
abstracts
 Social sciences citation index
2.2 Design Techniques-
A priority for selecting literature material
10
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Journal article
 Easiest

to locate and duplicate
Dissertation
 Quality
 Difficult

to read
Web
 Easy
to access
 Quality
 Online journals
2.2 Design Techniques-
A literature map of the research
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Organize the literature
Build a visual picture of existing research
Way to organize the literature map
Type
Content
Hierarchical
Top-down
Flowchart
Left to right
Series of circles
Circle represents literature
The intersection of the circles
2.2 Design Techniques-
A literature map of the research
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2.2 Design Techniques-
Abstracting studies
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Mention the problem being addressed.
 State the central purpose or focus of the study.
 Briefly state information.
 Review key results that relate to the proposed
study.

2.2 Design Techniques-
Style manuals
14
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Provide guidelines for creating a scholarly
style of a manuscript.
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In-text references
End-of-text references
Headings
Footnotes
Tables and figures
2.3 The Definition of Terms
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If there is any likelihood that readers don’t know
the meaning.
When it first appears in the proposal.
Do not define the terms in everyday language.
Qualitative studies
 Do

Quantitative studies
 In
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not include the separate section
the separate section
Mixed methods studies
2.4 A Quantitative or Mixed Methods
Literature Review
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The literature be composed of 5 components
 Introduction
 independent
variable
 dependent variable
 relates the independent variable to the depend
variable
 summary
3. Summary
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1. Identify your topic
2. Qualitative research
 Literature
helps substantiate the problem.
 At the end of study.
3. Quantitative research
 Literature
helps substantiate the problem.
 Not only helps substantiate the problem, but also
suggests possible questions that needs to be addressed.
 Separate section
4. Mixed methods research
3. Summary
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5. Steps in conducting a literature review
6. Define the key terms
THANKS FOR
LISTENING
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