Slide 6.1
Chapter 6
Negotiating access and research ethics
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.2
Gaining access to data (1)
Physical access – key issues
• Organisations may not wish to allocate resources
• Requests for access may not be of sufficient interest
• Failure to reach those who can give permission
• Concerns about sensitivity and confidentiality
• Perceptions about the researcher’s credibility
• Doubts about the researcher’s competence
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.3
Gaining access to data (1)
Cognitive Access
It means that not only is important to gain Physical
access but after that to obtain information that would
help you in your research to reach your research
objective.
Physical access is granted by management, while
cognitive access will depend on how the participants
in your research accept you, trust you, and provide
you with the needed correct information.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.4
Gaining access to data (3)
Virtual access - four types of online community
• Bulletin boards for particular products or services
• Independent web pages
• Themed email lists
• Multiuser chat rooms
Adapted from Kozinets (2002)
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.5
Gaining access to data (4)
Checklist Box 6.8
Complete the Checklist in Box 6.8
to help you gain access
Saunders et al. (2009)
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.6
Strategies to gain access (1)
Areas for consideration
• Ensuring familiarity and understanding with the
characteristics of the organization or group.
• Allowing sufficient time for contacting and
carrying the research
• Using existing contacts and developing new ones
• Giving a clear account of purpose will allow those
you are contacting to be at ease wherever you
are in the access process
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.7
Strategies to gain access (2)
Areas for consideration
• Overcoming organisational concerns: amount of time
or resources involved, sensitivity about the topic, confidentiality
and anonymity of org or participants.
• Identifying possible organisational benefits which
may help you obtain approval of access.
• Establishing researcher credibility will be needed
to access cognitive information.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.8
Research Ethics (1)
Definition
‘The appropriateness of your behaviour in
relation to the rights of those who become the
subject of or are affected by your work’
Adapted from Saunders et al. (2009)
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.9
Research Ethics (8)
Issues during data collection
• General issues applying to techniques
• Awareness of participant’s rights
• Keeping to the project aims
• Safety of the researcher
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.10
Research Ethics (9)
Issues during data collection
• Maintaining objectivity, confidentiality and
anonymity
• Appropriate interview behaviour
• Use of observation techniques
• Undertaking a covert study
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.11
Data processing and storage
Personal data must be
• Processed fairly and lawfully
• Obtained for specified purposes
• Adequate and relevant
• Accurate, updated and kept securely
Adapted from Saunders et al. (2009)
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.12
Data analysis and reporting
Related issues
• Sensitive personal data
• Confidentiality and anonymity
• Protection of research participants
• Ethical use of data analysis and conclusions
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.13
Dealing with ethical issues
Checklist Box 6.18
Complete the Checklist in Box 6.18
to help you anticipate and deal with
ethical issues
Saunders et al. (2009)
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.14
Summary: Chapter 6
• Access and ethics are critical aspects of research
• Access may be physical, cognitive or continuing
• Feasibility is an important determinant
• Potential ethical issues should be recognised
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 6.15
Summary: Chapter 6
• Ethical concerns can occur throughout the research
• Both qualitative and quantitative research have
associated ethical issues
• Use of the Internet and email for data generation
raises specific ethical issues
• Data protection legislation requires researchers to
comply with legal requirements
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009