Learning Theories &
Program Design
Lecture
Demonstration
Hands on experience
Feedback
What Is Learning? What
Is Learned?
Verbal information
Intellectual skills
Motor skills
Attitudes
Cognitive strategies
Learning Theories
Reinforcement theory

To perform or avoid certain behaviors
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Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Extinction
Punishment
Behavior Modification

Based on reinforcement theory
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
Save money
Decrease costs
Increase safety & ranking for the department
Learning Theories
Social Learning

You learn by watching others. Behavior that is reinforced or
rewarded tends to be repeated.
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High self monitors
Low self monitors
Self Efficiency


I can do it?
To increase self-efficiency use:

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Verbal persuasion
Logical verification
Modeling
Past accomplishments
Process Of Social
Learning
Attention

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Model stimuli
Trainee
characteristics
Retention

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Coding
Organization
Rehearsal
Motor
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Physical capability
Accuracy
Feedback
Motivational

Reinforcement
Learning Theories
Goal setting theory
Directs energy
 Must be specific
 Must be measurable
 Challenging
 Achievable
 Must have a definite date

Learning Theories
Goal orientation

Mastery orientation

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Trainees want the trainer to be more interested
in how they are learning
Performance orientation
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How the trainee compares to others
Needs Theories
Maslow’s needs theory
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Physiological needs
Relatedness needs
Growth needs
Self esteem
Self actualization
Needs Theories
McCelland’s need theory
1.
2.
3.
Need for achievement
Need for affiliation
Need for power
Expectancy theory

Expectancy X Instrumentality X Valence = Effort
Learning Theories
Adult learning theory
Pedagogy vs. Androgogy
Children:
1. Passive learners
2. Have few experiences
Adults:
1. Need to know why
2. Self directed
3. Have work experiences
4. Problem centered
5. Motivated extrinsically &
intrinsically
Mutuality
Both Trainee and Trainer are involved with learning
and discovering
Design Issue
Implications
Self-Concept
Mutual planning & collaboration in
instruction
Experience
Use learner experience as basis for
examples & applications
Readiness
Develop instruction based on the
learner’s interest & competencies
Time perspective
Immediate application of content
Orientation of learning
Problem-centered instead of
subject-centered
Information Processing
Theory
Internal processes are affected by
external events
Stimulus
Receptors
Stimulus
Environment
Feedback
Enforcement
Effectors
Sensory
Register
Short-Term
Memory
Long-Term
Memory
Response
Generator
The Learning Process
What are physical & mental processes?
How does learning occur?
Do employees have different learning
styles?
The Learning Process
Continued
Process of
Learning
Expectancy
External Instructional
Events
1. Informing the learner
of the lesson objective
Forms of Instruction
1a. Demonstrate the expected
performance
1b. Indicate the kind of verbal
question to be answered
Perception
2. Presenting stimuli with 2a. Emphasize the features of the
distinctive features
subject perceived
2b. Use formatting and figures in text
to emphasize features
Working storage 3. Limiting the amount to 3a. Chunk lengthier material
be learned
3b. Provide a visual image of material
to be learned
3c. Provide practice and over learning
to aid the attainment of automaticity
Semantic encoding 4. Providing learning
4a. Provide verbal cues
guidance
4b. Provide verbal links
4c. Use diagrams & models
Learning Process
Continued
Process of
Learning
External Instructional
Events
Long-Term
Storage
5. The amount to be
learned
Retrieval
6. Providing cues that
are used in recall
Generalizing
7. Enhancing retention
& learning transfer
Gratifying
8. Providing feedback
about performance
correctness
Forms of Instruction
5a. Vary the context and setting
for presentation & recall
5b. Relate newly learned
material to previous
5c. Provide variety of contexts
6a. Use elicit cues to recall
material
6b. Familiar sounds or rhymes
7a. Design learning situation to
share elements with the situation
7b. Provide verbal links to
additional complexes of info
8a. Provide feedback on accuracy & timing
8b. Confirm if original expectancies met
The Learning Cycle
4 stage dynamic cycles
1.
2.
3.
4.
Concrete experiences
Reflective observation
Abstract conceptualization
Active experimentation
Age Influences On
Learning
Decreases with age
1.
2.
Short term memory
Speed of processing
Increases with age
1.
Experiences to draw from
Generations
1.
2.
3.
4.
Nexters (born after 1980)
Gen Xers (1961-1980)
Baby Boomers (1945-1960)
Traditionalist (1920-1944)
Implications Of the
Learning Process For
Instruction
Instruction- characteristics of
environment in which learning occurs
Learning Styles
Learning Style
Diverger
Dominant Abilities
Characteristics
Concrete experience
Generates ideas,
Reflective observation
multiple perspectives
Interested in people
Assimilator
Abstract Conceptualization
Reflective Observation
Inductive reasoning,
Less concerned with
people
Converger
Abstract conceptualization
Active experimentation
Decisiveness, practical
Deals with technical
tasks
Accommodator
Concrete experience
Active Experimentation
Carrying out plans
At ease with people
Employees Need To Know
Why They Should Learn
Need to Know:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Objective-purpose
Expected-outcomes
Quality of performance expected
Conditions in which employee will
perform
Employee Need Meaningful
Training Content
Employee needs the opportunities to
practice
A. Practice Conditions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Provide information
Encouragement
Advance organizers
Help employee master learning goals
Realistic expectations
Employee Need Meaningful
Training Content
B. Practice Involves Experience
C. Massed vs. Spaced Practices
D. Whole vs. Part Practices
E. Effective Practice Conditions
Employees Need To
Commit Training Content
To Memory
Short terms move to long terms
Employees need feedback
Employees learn through observation
Communities of practice
Employees Need Training
Program To Be Well
Organized
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Communicating courses and programs to
employees
Enrolling employees in courses and
programs
Preparing and processing any materials
such as readings of tests
Preparing materials that will be used in
instruction
Arranging for the training facility and room
Testing equipment that will be used
Employees Need training
Program To Be Well
Organized
7. Having backup equipment
8. Providing support during instruction
9. Distributing evaluation materials
10. Facilitating communications between
trainer and trainees
11. Recording course completion in the
trainees’ training records
Instructional Emphasis
For Learning Outcomes
1. Internal Conditions
2. External Conditions
Table 4-7 page 131
Considerations In
Designing Effective
Training Programs
Training Site
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Comfortable – square not long
Quiet – acoustics
Plenty of space
Well lit
Equipment – electrical outlets
Good chairs, round tables
Considerations In
Designing Effective
Training Programs
Seating arrangements

Based on training design page 134
Create a learning setting
Break out rooms
 Prepare in advance
 Check out equipment
 Greet employees as the enter
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How Trainers Can Make
Training Site Conductive
To Learning
Engaging trainee
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Be dynamic
Use different places in the room
Focus on employees
Facilitate interaction
Classroom management

Keep it clean and well organized
Managing group dynamic
Program design

Course Parameters
 Course title
 Target audience
 Goals
 Total time
 Number of employees
 Prerequisites
 Instructor
Objectives
Program objectives – broad
Course objectives

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Measurable/specifics
Challenging/achievable
Detailed lesson plan
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List the content and sequence of training. Look at
page 139 and 140
Lecture – demonstrate – experience
Remember breaks
Snacks and drinks