TARGET To REALIZE and LEAD a guided tour of an archeological site - The VILLA OF COLONNACCE to CASTEL DI GUIDO (Rome) How can we organize a guided visit? What are the topics to talk about? What do you espect when you participate in a visit? Aim of our guided tour A Roman villa ● What is a villa: the latin term refers to the building essentially destined to housing and to the agricultural and pastoral activities, also for productive activities and the administration of rural property as opposed to the houses within the city Aim of our guided tour Geographic area: Characteristic building of roman culture spread throughout the conquered territory Chronology Encoding of the model and first examples IV century b.C. Villa catoniana I century A.D. II century b.C. Villa varroniana Abandon IV century A.D. VI century A.D. 0 VI century b.C. III century b.C. I century b.C. III century A.D. V century A.D. The exploitation of the territory before the villas Starting from the VI century b.C., with the establishment of cities, the countrysides tend to lose population and the city became the center of political and social activities; instead the country was the center of economic activities, related to the exploitation of agricultural and pastoral resources The exploitation of the territory before the villas The use of territorial resources was managed in two different ways: 1. The area in direct contact with urban settlement, flat, and cultivated directly by citizens 2. The area at the edge of the town, hilly, was used for breeding, extensive cultivation and timber harvesting The exploitation of the territory before the villas The exploitation of the territory before the villas Starting from the IV century b. C., in the territories under the domain of Rome, it change the way of using the lands and around the cities develop: 1. New residential foundation as the oppida and the vici: small settlement of the countryside 2. Allocation of plots of land to colonists or to war veterans who could use the resources according to their needs Examples of land allocation The birth of the “villa system” The political expansion related to the period of the First Punic War, leads to an increase of land use and slave labor. Moreover many of the first colonists are forced to abandon the land, going to war and selling their property to wealthy owners that, in that way, can expand their possessions and lay the foundations of the establishment of the system of villa. The birth of the “villa system” Villa catoniana and Villa Varroniana There are two types of Villa, also according to Plinio il Vecchio and Vituvio writings: - the Villa catoniana, wich takes its name from De agri cultura of Catone - the Villa varroniana, from De re rustica of Varrone M. Porcio Catone Marco Terenzio Varrone statue in Rieti Villa catoniana This model of villa states between the III and II century b. C. and is marked as a small countryhouse handled by a factor, and easily reached from the city. It spread new agricultural crops (the vine and olive), in addition to traditional cereals, and we begin to see an evolution in the architecture of the villa, which adapts itself to new functions: - offer residential spaces of most value to form a picture of the culture and social level of the dominus. Villa catoniana Rural life and farming Slaves during their domestic activities Villa varroniana This model belongs to the I century b. C., described by Varrone in the 37 b. C. in De re rustica. The villa is the production, administrative and residential center of a real rural property, divided into: - pars urbana, residential area which could be more or less monumental - pars rustica destined at products processing and conservation which was located near the pars urbana (there could be also a pars fructuaria). Some examples of the activities: the press Villa varroniana The villa is characterized by an intensive use of the land and the strong marketing of products; also for the diversification of the crops and from use of slave force. In fact, thanks to the Rome expansion became much easier to obtain workforce of slaves especially after the war defeat or purchased through the great slave markets of the Aegean and the Orient. Since at least the II century b. C., the villa is already used as a place for relax (otium) and escape from the ordinary activities and business (negotium) of public and social life practiced in the city by dominus. Villa varroniana Thank you everybody! I hope you enjoyed the lesson We’ll see next Monday.