Chapter 1, Section 3:
Communicating with
Graphs
(C.P. Exploring Science)
GRAPHS


A visual display of information or data
Why use graphs?

They show patterns in data better than a
table
GRAPHS


Graphs make understanding the data easier
With graphs, you can see patterns and trends
and make conclusions
Race/Ethnicity
AP Examinee Population
Asian, Asian American or Pacific Islander
10.2%
8.2%
15.5%
Black or African American
Hispanic or Latino
American Indian or Alaska Native
White
Not reported/other

Which
display is
easier to
understand?
0.6%
59.4%
6.1%
GRAPHS

What are the three common types of
graphs?

LINE, BAR, CIRCLE
LINE GRAPHS

Show the relationship of how the dependent variable changes
due to changes in the independent variable
LINE GRAPHS


You can show more
than one event on
the same graph as
long as the
relationship is the
same
NEEDS A KEY!
CONSTRUCTING LINE GRAPHS


x-axis is the Independent Variable
y-axis is the Dependent Variable
CONSTRUCTING LINE GRAPHS


Because the points are RELATED, connect them
This is how you can tell if a line graph is most
appropriate. If you are not looking to see CHANGE then
you don’t need a line graph.
Should this be a line graph?
NO! There is no relationship
in the change. It should be a
bar graph.
CONSTRUCTING LINE GRAPHS


MEASUREMENT –
all should be in
the SAME unit
and be sure your
divisions make
sense.
Use a “break” if
you need it.
BAR GRAPHS


Used to compare TOTALS that don’t need to show
change over time
Show comparisons of quantities counted at a
particular time.
BAR GRAPHS

Multiple bar graphs show two or more sets of
data:
Like a multiple line graph,
you will need a key.
CIRCLE (PIE) GRAPHS



Show how some fixed quantity is broken down into parts
The whole circle represents the total
The slices represent the PERCENTAGES of the total
CIRCLE (PIE) GRAPHS

To create a circle graph, start
with the total and divide each
part by the total and multiply
by 360⁰ to find the angle the
slice will occupy
 FOR EXAMPLE: if the total
number of grades counted
were 100 and the number
of A’s were 31, to get the
size angle A’s occupy would
be:
 31 ÷ 100 × 360⁰ = 112⁰
(size of the slice for A’s)
WHAT’S WRONG WITH THESE
GRAPHS???
WHAT’S WRONG WITH THESE
GRAPHS???
WHAT’S WRONG WITH THESE
GRAPHS???
WHAT’S WRONG WITH THESE
GRAPHS???
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