Chapter 3 Myology
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Section 1 The general description
A. Three variations of muscular tissue
1. According to the gross structure
1) skeletal muscle
2) smooth muscle
3) cardiac muscle
2. According to the microscopic structure
1) striped(striated) muscle (skeletal muscle and
cardiac muscle)
2) unstriated muscle (smooth muscle)
3. According to the function
1) voluntary muscle (skeletal muscle)
2) involuntary muscle (smooth and cardiac muscles)
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B. The morphology of
skeletal muscles
1. 4 kinds of skeletal muscles
long, short, broad, orbicular muscles.
2. The direction of muscular fibers
bipennate muscles
unipennate muscles
multipennate muscles
3. The tendinous number
digastric m., biceps m.,
triceps m., quadriceps m..
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bipennate muscles
unipennate muscles
multipennate muscles
digastric m.,
biceps m.,
triceps m.,
quadriceps m..
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bipennate muscles
unipennate muscles
multipennate muscles
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C.The gross structures of a skeletal muscle:
1. Belly and tendon :
aponeurosis,
tendinous intersection
intermediate tendon
digastric m.
triceps m.
biceps m.
quadriceps m.
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D.The origin, insertion of skeletal muscle:
1.The fixation of muscles: most muscles are
attached to bones, cartilages, ligaments, fasciae or
combination of them, some are attached to organs,
skin or mucous membrane.
2. Origin and insertion:
a) in general, when a muscle contracts or shortens,
fixed attachment is origin, the moveable one is
insertion, so in limbs, the distal parts of muscles
usually are insertion.
b) sometimes the flexion and movement parts of the
muscle may be exchanged each other.
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E . The action of the muscles:
1. Prime movers or agonists: contract actively
2. Antagonists: oppose the action of a prime mover
3. Synergist: cooperate in performing an action
4. Fixators
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F.The nomenclature of muscles:
The names of muscles indicated shape, location,
actions or their combination of muscles.
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The nomenclature of the muscle
The names of muscles indicated shape, location,
actions or their combination of muscles.
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G.The accessory structures of the muscles
1.The fascia:
a) superficial fascia (fat, the trunks of subcutaneous
vessels and nerves, the superficial lymph notes, the
mammary gland and cutaneous muscles.)
b) deep fascia (proper fascia)
---form some sheaths for each or group of muscles and
for vessels and nervous.
---intermuscular septa separating the groups of muscles
---retinaculum for its underlying tendons.
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G. The accessory structures
of the muscles
1. The fascia
1) The superficial fascia
--- immediately beneath the cutis,
covering almost the entire body.
--- to be composed of loose connective tissue
containing fat in varying quantity.
--- varies in thickness in different individuals and
different parts of the body.
--- contains the trunks of the subcutaneous vessels and
nerves, the superficial lymph nodes the mammary
gland and certain cutaneous muscles.
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2) The deep fascia (proper fascia)
--- forms some sheaths for each or group of muscles
and for vessels and nerves.
--- intermuscular septa separating the groups of
muscles.
--- retinaculum for its underlying tendons.
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retinaculum
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2.The synovial tendon sheath (or tendinous sheath):
2 layers
a) fibrous layer (or fibrous sheath of tendon)
b) synovial layer (or synovial sheath of tendon)
--- parietal layer and visceral layer (synovial fluid)
--- mesotendon (mesotendineum) carries blood vessels
to the tendon.
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3. The synovial bursa
4. The sesamoid bones
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The groups, layers of bodily muscles
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Section 2 The Muscles of Trunk
. The muscles of back
trapezius, latissimus,
levattor scapulae, rhomboid muscles
erector spinae (sacrospinelis)
thoracolumbar fascia
. The muscles of thorax
1) The extrinsic muscles
pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, serratus anterior
2) The intrinsic muscles
intercostales extrerni, intercostales interni
 . The diaphragm
 . The muscles of abdomen
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Section 3 The Muscles of Head and Neck
. The muscles of head
1. The facial muscles
2. The masticatory muscles
. The muscles of neck
1. The superficial group
plytama, sternocleidomastoid
2. The hyoid muscle
1) The suprahyoid muscles
digastric, mylohyoid, stylohyoid, geniohyoid
2) The infrahyoid muscles
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sternohyoid, omohyoid; sternothyoid, thyrohyoid
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Section 4 The Muscles of Upper
Limb
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Section 5 The Muscles of lower
Limb
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