Chapter 13- part 2:
Early Adulthood
Module 6
Cognitive Development
in Early Adulthood
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Intellectual Growth in Early
Adulthood
Physical development slows down during
early adulthood, but does cognitive?
~
What did Piaget propose?
329
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Postformal Thought
•
•
•
Giesela Labouvie-Vief
Adult predicaments are sometimes solved
by relativistic thinking rather than pure logic
Postformal thought acknowledges that world
sometimes lacks purely right and wrong
solutions so adults must draw upon prior
experiences to solve problems
329
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
K. Warner Schaie
•
•
•
•
•
ACQUISITIVE STAGE
ACHIEVING STAGE
RESPONSIBLE STAGE
EXECUTIVE STAGE
REINTEGRATIVE STAGE
331
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
How Information Is Used:
Schaie’s Stages
331
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
REVIEW
• Cognitive development continues into young adulthood
with the emergence of postformal thought, which goes
beyond logic to encompass interpretive and subjective
thinking.
• Perry suggests that people move from dualistic thinking
to relativistic thought during early adulthood.
• According to Schaie, people pass through five stages in
the way they use information: acquisitive, achieving,
responsible, executive, and reintegrative.
332
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
APPLY
• Can you think of situations that you would
deal with differently as an adult than as an
adolescent? Do the differences reflect
postformal thinking?
332
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Intelligence: What Matters in
Early Adulthood?
•
Sternberg - TRIARCHIC
THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE
•
Intelligence is made up of three
major components:
•
•
•
Componential aspects (analytical)
Experiential components (creative)
Contextual factors (practical)
332
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Expanding on Sternberg’s
Theory…
•
Psychologist Seymour Epstein
– Constructive thinking
•
•
Form of practical intelligence
Underlies success in such areas as social
relationships and physical and emotional
health
333
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Creativity: Novel Thought in
Early Adulthood
•
CREATIVITY
•
Early adulthood
–
–
Peak of creativity
Many of professional
problems are novel
– Willing to take
risks
335
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Life Events and Cognitive
Development
• Major life events may lead to cognitive
growth
– Think about the world in novel, more complex,
sophisticated, and often less rigid ways
– Apply postformal thought (Labouvie-Vief)
336
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
REVIEW
• New views of intelligence encompass the triarchic
theory, Practical intelligence, and emotional intelligence.
• Creativity seems to peak during early adulthood, with
young adults viewing even longstanding problems as
novel situations.
• Major life events contribute to cognitive growth by
providing opportunities and incentives to rethink one’s
self and one’s world.
336
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
COLLEGE: PURSUING
HIGHER EDUCATION
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Higher Education
College is period of developmental
growth that encompasses mastery not
just of particular bodies of knowledge, but
of ways of understanding world.
336
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
College: Pursuing Higher
Education
•
Nationwide, a minority of high school
graduates enter college
•
Only about 40% of those who start graduate
from college in 4 years
•
Influenced by race and gender variables
336
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Who goes to college?
•
•
•
•
40% of college students today are 25 years of
age or older
Average age of a community college student is
31
College degree is becoming increasingly
important in obtaining and keeping job
Absolute number of minority students enrolled
in college has increased BUT overall proportion
of minority population has decreased over past
decade
337
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Why is there a gender gap in
college attendance?
Will it continue?
• Men have more opportunities to earn
money when they graduate
• More women enrolled in college
337
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
The Changing College Student:
Never Too Late to Go to College?
•
According to Sherry Willis, adults return
to college for several reasons:
– To understand their own aging
– To keep up with rapid technological and
cultural advances
– To combat obsolescence on the job
– To acquire new vocational skills
– To broaden their intellectual skills
337
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
College Adjustment: Reacting to
the Demands of College Life
• First year adjustment reaction
– Particularly affects unusually successful
students in high school
– Passes for most as friends made and
integration into college life occurs
– Serious psychological consequences for few
339
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
The Informed Consumer of
Development
When Do College Students Need
Professional Help with Their Problems?
• Psychological distress that lingers and interferes
with a person’s sense of well-being and ability to
function
• Feelings that one is unable to cope effectively
with the stress
• Hopeless or depressed feelings
• Inability to build close relationships with others
• Physical symptoms
340
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Depression in College Students
340
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Why do differences exist in
gender distribution in
classes and attrition rates?
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Gender and College
Performance
•
Prejudice and discrimination
– Hostile sexism
– Benevolent sexist
•
Differences exist in gender distribution in
classes and attrition rates
341
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Stereotype Threat and
Disidentification with School
African Americans don’t do well in academic
pursuits.
Women lack ability in math and science.
341
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
REVIEW
• Rates of college enrollment differ across racial and
ethnic lines.
• The average age of college students is steadily
increasing as more adults return to college.
344
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
REVIEW
• The phenomena of academic
disidentification and stereotype threat help
explain the lower performance of women
and African Americans in certain academic
domains.
344
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
APPLY
• How would you educate college professors who behave
differently toward male and female students? What
factors contribute to this phenomenon? Can this situation
be changed?
344
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
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