Chapter 5 Energy and
Lesson 1- How do Plants produce food?
Lesson 2 How is Energy passed through
and Ecosystem?
Lesson 1 Vocabulary
• Transpiration- the loss of water from a leaf
through the stomata
• Photosynthesis- Process by which plants
make food (sugar) by using water, CO2, and
energy from the sun
• Chlorophyll- green pigment that allows a plant
to absorb the sun’s light energy
• Producer- living thing, such as a plant, that
makes its own food
• Consumer- animal that eats plants, other
animals, or both
Lesson 1 How do Plants Produce Food?
• Plant Structures- Roots, stem, leaves
– Most leaves are thin and have several layers of cells. The outer
layer is the epidermis which keeps leaf from drying out.
– The underside of the leaf has many small holes called
stomata(s) that open during the day so the leaf can take in CO2
for Photosynthesis.
– Chloroplasts contain a green pigment, or coloring matter, called
chlorophyll….this gives the plant its “green” color.
– Oxygen is produced as a byproduct of photosynthesis. It is
released into the air through the stomata.
It all Starts with Plants
-All organisms need energy to live/grow, that energy comes from food
Producers (Plants)
Consumers (Animals)
Lesson 2 Vocabulary
• Ecosystem- A community of organisms and the
environment in which they live
• Herbivore- An animal that eats producers
• Carnivore- An animal that eats other animals
• Food Chain- Transfer of food energy between
organisms in an ecosystem
• Decomposer- A consumer that obtains food energy
by breaking down the remains of dead plants and
• Food Web- A diagram that shows the relationship
between different food chains in an ecosystem
• Energy Pyramid- A diagram that shows how much
food energy is passed from each level in a food
chain to the next level
Lesson 2 How is Energy Passed
Through an Ecosystem?
• Energy Transfer
• -Food energy stored
in producers gets
passed to consumers.
When the animals
dies, decomposers
break down the
remains for food and
the rest becomes
mixed into the soil.
Food Webs- The relationships
among different food chains
Energy Pyramid
• -Not all the food energy of plants is passed on to
herbivores. Producers uses about 90% of the food
energy they produce for their own life processes. They
store the other 10% in their leaves, stems, roots, fruits,
and seeds.
• Animals that eat the producers get only 10% of the
energy the producers make.
• An energy pyramid shows that each level of a food chain
passes on LESS food energy in each level.
• Because each level passes so little energy to the next,
the 1st level consumers need many producers to support
them. In the same way, the 2nd level consumers need
many 1st level consumers to support them, which this
pattern continues up to the tip of the food chain.
That’s why the base of an energy pyramid is so wide, and
why only one or two animals are at the top
Natural Cycles
• Other cycles in ecosystems play a very
important roll as well
– Water cycle- provides plants with water for
– Nitrogen cycle- gas that makes up most of the
Earth’s atmosphere. When a plant or animal dies and
decays, nitrogen returns to the soil.
– Carbon/Oxygen Cycle- plants take in Carbon
Dioxide and give off Oxygen, while animals breath in
Oxygen and give off Carbon Dioxide

Chapter 5 Energy and Ecosystems