The social and economic strains
of total war-finance and
economic mobilisation.
Growing opposition: peace
resolutions and strikes.
Germany and her army in 1918.
Connector-Brainstorm the effects of
The Effects
of war
• All students to make notes on the
economic effects of World War 1 on
• Most students to research key points of
opposition to the war by 1918
• Some students to see how this would
affect future governments
Effect of world war 1
• Mainly economic and social that would
lead to political effects years later
• By 1918 Germany was a shattered nation
(as were many others)
• Not just in terms of money but also men
Physical damage
• Roughly 2 million solders killed
• 2.7 million permanantly disabled
• 500 000 war widows
• 1.2 million orphans
• Physiological implications of those that
fought in World War 1
• Luckily for Germany most of the fighting
was done in France
• Little of Germanys land was destroyed by
trench warfare
The Economy
• Between 1913-18 the mark lost 75% of its value
• Industry made vast profits- iron, coal, steel,
which was resented by ordinary workers
• Agricultural production fell (why?)
• Dec 1916 Auxiliary Law gave government harsh
powers over labour force
• War financed by printing and borrowing moneywhat would this lead to?
• Little booty from victory!
• Only 16% of war cost met by tax
More bad news
• National debt rose from 5,000 million
marksto 154 000 million
• It would have taken 100% of Germanys
budget just to repay the interest on the
loans let alone pay the loans off!
Living conditions (social)
Real earnings fell by 20-30%
Meat consumption fell by 12% per war level
1917- the turnip winter- only food avaliable
Major food and fuel shortages due to British
• Disease- major flu epidemic killed 15 million
world wide
• Deaths from starvation and hypothermia went
from 121 000 to 293 00 in two years
• The number of working women increased by
• Cost of war
– 2 million killed
– 6.3 million injured
– £ 8, 394 million cost of war
• What did they achieve
Protests within Germany
• By 1917 the Bergfrid was breaking down
• German people were now divided by war
• The British naval blockade was slowly starving
• Many socialists questioned why Germany was
involved in the war
• In April 1917 the Radicals opposed to the war
formed the Independent Socialist Party
• In July 1917 the Reichstag voted 212 to 126 for
a peace resolution
Why did nothing happen?
• The German government had become
incresingly dominated by Generals
• From 1916 von Hindenberg and von Ludendorff
ran a virtual military dictatorship
• They dominated not just military but also
economic and political decisions and blocked
several approaches to peace
• German nationalists demanded a SIEGFRIEDE
(peace through victory) by Germany making
major land gains in the east such as the
• Read chapter 3 of your red book
• Take notes from chapter 3
• Blue book p88-100
As a result of thid