Universal Human Rights? Which rights do you think should be universal? – Some? – All? – None? What happens when “universal human rights” are violated? What happens when there is a genocide (种族 大屠杀) occurring somewhere else in the world? Do countries have the right to intervene in other countries’ domestic affairs? Do they have the responsibility to? Humanitarian Intervention Definition of Humanitarian Intervention The threat of use of force across state borders by a state (or group of states) to prevent or end widespread and grave violations of the fundamental human rights of individuals other than its own citizens, without the permission of the state within whose territory force is applied. Brief Historical Overview • Grotius (格劳秀斯) (1583 - 1645) – War was permissible to assist people who were resisting extreme tyranny – Used as justification throughout the 1800s by Europe to protect Christians under Ottoman (奥托曼) rule Post World War II • United Nations charter signed 1945 • Universal Declaration of Human Rights signed in 1948 Post-Cold War • End of Cold War in 1989 - the rise in power and importance of the UN Security Council • Increased concern for human rights and the need to intervene to stop genocide Example: Somalia • 1992: the UN authorized a US-led intervention in Somalia (索马里) • Civil War had led to widespread famine and starvation • Intervention was partly successful http://v.youku.c om/v_show/id_ XMTA5MzM5O DYw.html Example: Rwanda • In Rwanda (卢旺达) in 1994 a brutal civil conflict broke out between two ethnic groups: the Hutus and Tutsis • The UN authorized France to lead an intervention, but only after 800,000 Tutsis were already killed http://v.youku.com/v _show/id_XMjU3OD cwNDQ=.html Example: Yugoslavia • In 1998 there were fears that the president Milosevic of Yugoslavia (南斯拉夫) would begin a genocide against the Albanians • The UN Security Council failed to authorize force because two countries disagreed • NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) went in anyway - mission was successful Other Examples • • • • • Uganda Cambodia Haiti Iraq Sudan Does the United Nations authorize humanitarian intervention? It’s a matter of interpretation. Read selections from the UN Charter and think about whether the language says that humanitarian intervention is OK. • Article 2(4) states "shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations." Questions for Discussion What are other forms of international intervention and assistance? How is “humanitarian intervention” different? What are the pros and cons of humanitarian intervention? Make a list of the reasons why it may be beneficial and why it may be harmful. Under what conditions do you think humanitarian intervention is permissible? What kinds and degrees of threats to a population justify an international response? What other criteria apply? A country seeks authorization from the United Nations, and the United Nations says No. Should the country still intervene if they feel it’s the right thing to do? What does this do to the power of the UN? • What are other possible criticisms of humanitarian intervention? – Do you think states would have other motives when intervening? The International Community A.K.A. The United Nations What gives the international community moral authority? Homework Read about the current crisis in Darfur, Sudan (苏丹). http://www.tudou. com/programs/vi ew/PLvGriQJWV w/ Write a response (one page or under) addressing some of these issues: • Should the UN intervene in Sudan? • What do you think is more important: protecting state sovereignty or protecting human rights? • Do you believe in universal rights? • Do you think the UN should have the ultimate power? Some power? No power? • Do you believe in humanitarian intervention?