Interactions among Policy Elements Looking at Program Components Policy Elements Coentitlement – people eligible for one program will be eligible for others (example, TANF, Medical, Food Stamps) Disentitlement-use of one benefit will make people ineligible for others (example, SSI receipt makes people ineligible for TANF). Lipsky argues that there is also a program effect called “bureaucratic disentitlement – this is when the rules make it almost impossible for people to apply for a service and establish eligibility for it. (for example, the relative responsibility rule; some types of work requirements or eligibility restrictions) Program Elements (continued) Contrary effects – operation of one program or policy cancels out another. (For example, increasing accountability or paperwork requirements may decrease program access). Duplication of services (someone may receive the same benefits from more than one source – prompting concerns about the individual receiving too much and reducing services/benefits available to others.) Government-level interaction. Benefits administered or financed at one level may cancel out those received at another. (example – receipt of emergency shelter or food may affect eligibility for some types of federal benefits). Things to take into consideration in policy analysis: Context of Social Problem Definition of Problem Ideological Perspective Causal analysis (what theories are used to explain the problem). Gainers & Losers Judicial & Historical Context Social Program/Policy Goals & Objectives Eligibility Rules Benefit or Service Policy analysis (continued) Administration & Service Delivery Program Theory (why is program expected to work/causal chain) Program Design Type of Service Delivery Organization Is it integrated/continuous? Accessible How is accountability enforced? Financing Mechanism Example: Child Abuse Programs What are the theories about why child abuse happens? Have our ideas about child abuse changed over time? What types of programs are effective in counseling adult abusers? What are the theories associated with these programs?