Lesson Plan
• Review
• New Words and Phrases
• Reading and Translating—Unit Sixteen
• Classroom Exercises
Review
Unit Sixteen
Modern Road
单 元 16
现代化道路
The efficiency of a country’s road network has
a profound effect on its prosperity. The ability of
roads to enable traffic to flow freely and safely
between the industrial and commercial centers
contributes enormously towards a progressive
economy. In fact, the importance of good roads,
both nationally and internationally, cannot be
overstressed.
The efficiency of a country’s road network has a
profound effect on its prosperity. The ability of
roads to enable traffic to flow freely and safely
between the industrial and commercial centers
contributes enormously towards a progressive
economy. In fact, the importance of good roads,
both nationally and internationally, cannot be
overstressed.
发达的交通系统对一个国家的繁荣有着深
刻的影响。道路若能使得工业中心与商业中心
间的交通变得畅通无阻、安全可靠,将极大地
促进经济的发展。事实上,无论是对一个国家
还是对全世界来说,优质道路的重要性无论怎
样强调都不为过。
In order to serve their purpose to the best
advantage, modern roads should, as far as possible,
possess the following principal features:
(a) They should be designed according to the
anticipated volume and speed of the traffic likely to
use them.
In order to serve their purpose to the best
advantage, modern roads should, as far as possible,
possess the following principal features:
(a) They should be designed according to the
anticipated volume and speed of the traffic likely
to use them.
为了充分发挥作用,现代道路应当尽可能
具备下列主要特征:
(a) 应按照预计的车流量和车速进行设计;
(b) Bends and gradients, where necessary, should
always be slight.
(c) Visibility should be unimpeded.
(d) They should be well and clearly signposted.
(e) Adequate provision should be made for both
cyclists and pedestrians, having due regard for their
safety.
(f) They should be well lit, where necessary.
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(b) Bends and gradients, where necessary, should always be
slight.
(c) Visibility should be unimpeded.
(d) They should be well and clearly signposted.
(e) Adequate provision should be made for both cyclists and
pedestrians, having due regard for their safety.
(f) They should be well lit, where necessary.
弯度和坡度不可避免时,要尽可能平缓;
能见度要好;
路标设置完备醒目;
充分考虑非机动车辆和行人的安全,他们的安全应受
到足够的尊重;
需要照明时,光线充足;
(g) Landscaping and hedge and tree planting on the
sides and central reservations should be arranged to
provide a pleasant and interesting outlook for the
road users, to avoid monotony and boredom.
(g) Landscaping and hedge and tree planting on
the sides and central reservations should be
arranged to provide a pleasant and interesting
outlook for the road users, to avoid monotony and
boredom.
为了避免单调、乏味,给使用者提供一个
赏心悦目的环境,道路两侧要进行美化,设置
栅栏,种植树木,路中心要设置分隔带。
The first step in building a road is to plan the
route. Sometimes the route has been decided by the
nature of the land, but today nature can often be
conquered. With powerful modern machinery,
whole mountains can be removed and valleys filled
in to make the route as direct as possible.
The first step in building a road is to plan the
route. Sometimes the route has been decided by
the nature of the land, but today nature can often
be conquered. With powerful modern machinery,
whole mountains can be removed and valleys
filled in to make the route as direct as possible.
筑路的第一步是规划线路。有时线路规划
受制于场地的天然状态,不过现在大自然往往
可以改造。由于大功率的现代化机械的采用,
整座山可以移走,河谷可以填平,道路因此可
以尽量取直。
Then the details are planned: the width of the
highway, the number of driving lanes, the number
and location of entrances and exits, and how strong
the road must be. All these depend on the amount of
traffic that is expected. Modern roads are usually
planned for the next 20years traffic.
Then the details are planned: the width of the
highway, the number of driving lanes, the number
and location of entrances and exits, and how strong
the road must be. All these depend on the amount
of traffic that is expected. Modern roads are usually
planned for the next 20years traffic.
然后,进行分项设计:公路宽度、行车车
道数目、入口和出口的数目、位置以及道路必
须具有的强度。所有这些都取决于预期的交通
量。现代化的道路一般按承受20 年的交通运输
量的标准而规划。
The next step is the testing of the earth
foundation on which the road is to rest. Engineers
carefully study the soil to learn how solid it is,
how much moisture it contains and how well it
drains. Then they decide how the soil should be
prepared and packed to provide a good, sturdy
foundation,or roadbed.
The next step is the testing of the earth
foundation on which the road is to rest. Engineers
carefully study the soil to learn how solid it is,
how much moisture it contains and how well it
drains. Then they decide how the soil should be
prepared and packed to provide a good, sturdy
foundation,or roadbed.
下一步骤是测试将要铺路的土壤基础,工
程师们要仔细研究土壤,以便了解密实程度如
何,含水量多少,排水情况好不好,然后他们
决定土壤应如何处理,如何压实,以保证有一
良好而坚固的基础(即路基)。
They prescribe the thickness of the road layers,
the size of the rocks in them, and the other materials
that should be used. While the testing is under way,
a group of surveyors begins to measure the land to
find out exactly how much work needs to be done
and how much it will cost. Then the construction
crew can finally move in.
They prescribe the thickness of the road layers,
the size of the rocks in them, and the other
materials that should be used. While the testing is
under way, a group of surveyors begins to measure
the land to find out exactly how much work needs
to be done and how much it will cost. Then the
construction crew can finally move in.
他们需定出道路各层的厚度,各路层使用
石块的块径及所使用的其他材料。在试验进行
的同时,测量组开始测量土地,以便精确算出
需要多大的施工量以及造价。之后,施工人员
即可进入工地。
Proper drainage is essential in road building,
because if the foundation became soggy, the heavy
road would sink into it. And if the water were to
freeze in the ground, it would expand and crack the
road. To protect the highway from such damage,
drainpipes called culverts are laid across the
roadbed wherever a strong flow of water is
expected.
Proper drainage is essential in road building,
because if the foundation became soggy, the heavy
road would sink into it. And if the water were to
freeze in the ground, it would expand and crack the
road. To protect the highway from such damage,
drainpipes called culverts are laid across the
roadbed wherever a strong flow of water is
expected.
在道路建设中,正常排水必不可少,因为
如果基础浸泡后,很重的道路面会下陷。如果
水在地表内结冰,会使路面开裂。为使公路免
遭这类损坏,在预计出现强水流的地方,横穿
路基铺设叫做“涵洞”的排水管。
The roadbed itself is shaped so that the middle
of the finished road will be higher than the sides.
Then water and melting snow will easily drain off
its surface into the drainpipes or ditches. The
roadbed is given a final grading (smoothing) and is
now ready to receive the road itself.
The roadbed itself is shaped so that the middle
of the finished road will be higher than the sides.
Then water and melting snow will easily drain off its
surface into the drainpipes or ditches. The roadbed is
given a final grading (smoothing) and is now ready
to receive the road itself.
路基要整形,以使铺好的路面中间高于两侧,
从而水和融雪就会很容易地从路面流到排水管或
排水沟内。路基做完最后找坡(找平),即为铺
路做好准备。
Almost all roads are built in two or more layers,
of rocks or stones. The bottom layer is 10 to 20
centimeters thick and usually made up of larger
stones. The upper course has smaller stones and is
about 8 centimeters thick. In most roads the lower
course is wide so that the edges, or shoulders, of the
top course do not break off or sink into soft dirt.
After each course is laid, it is compacted by heavy
power rollers.
Almost all roads are built in two or more layers,
of rocks or stones. The bottom layer is 10 to 20
centimeters thick and usually made up of larger
stones. The upper course has smaller stones and is
about 8 centimeters thick. In most roads the lower
course is wide so that the edges, or shoulders, of the
top course do not break off or sink into soft dirt.
After each course is laid, it is compacted by heavy
power rollers.
几乎所有的道路都是铺设2层或2层以上的石
头。底层10~20厘米厚,通常由较大的石头铺成。
上层用较小的石头,约8厘米厚。大多数的道路,
下一层比较宽,以使顶层的边缘,即路肩不会断
裂或下沉到松软的泥土中。各层铺好后,用大功
率压路机压实。
Classroom Exercises
The top or surface layer of a road must
withstand the weight of heavy vehicles. It
must also prevent water from seeping into the
roadbed. And modern highways are therefore
surfaced either with concrete or with
bituminous materials, such as asphalt, tar, or
heavy oils.
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Classroom Exercises