Library Instruction as Advocacy
倡导图书馆指导的重要性
Jo Bell Whitlatch乔.贝尔.维特拉奇
Faculty Emeritus 荣誉教授
San Jose State University圣何塞州立图书馆
Library Instruction图书馆指导
• Primary focus on building community
partnerships and reaching out to communities
of most interest 首要目标是建立社区合作关
系,拓展社区范围。
• Secondary focus on education, that is teaching
of information literacy skills to students and
citizens 培养学生和市民信息素养为次要目
标。
Why?为什么?
• Students record only 20-40 percent of
lecture’s main ideas in their notes 学生只能记
录讲座中20-40%的主要内容
• Without reviewing their notes, after three
weeks, students remember less than 10
percent如果不复习笔记,3个星期之后,学生
只能记住不到10%的内容
Defining Advocacy
什么叫倡导图书馆指导
• Involves changing attitudes, policies, planning for
change, improving understanding
包括改变态度,政策, 变化,以及提高理解力
• Promotes causes such as literacy, reading,
information literacy, preservation of local culture
发展读写能力,阅读能力,信息素养, 当地文
化的保护
• Appeals to wants, needs, and values of
community members
• 关注社区成员的需求和价值
SIVA – Customer-Focused SIVA
以顾客为中心
• Solutions – How can I solve my problem?
解决方式-如何解决我的问题
• Information – Where can I learn more about it?
信息-我可以在哪里学到更多信息?
• Value – What is my total sacrifice to get this
solution?
• 价值-为了获得解决办法我需要付出什么?
• Access – Where can I find it?
• 渠道-我在哪获得解决问题的办法?
Six Important Lessons 6个重点
• 1. Library and local government leaders need
to connect on community priorities
图书馆和当地政府领导人需要共同考虑社区
利益
• 2. Building partnerships is the key to
innovation
建立伙伴关系是创新的关键
• 3. Leadership happens at all levels of the
organization
• 各个级别的组织出现领导力
Six Important Lessons (cont.)
• 4. Successful partnerships require
commitment to the effort
成功的伙伴关系需要坚定的努力
• 5. Innovation occurs in communities of all
sizes
• 各种规模的社区都可以有创新
• 6. Not every effort will be successful
• 不是所有努力都会获得回报
Key Characteristics of the Community
Centered Library
以社区为中心的图书馆的关键特征
• Priority is providing services to individuals,
organizations, business, and institutions in the
community 给社区的个人,组织,商业以及事
业单位提供优先服务。
• Recognizes library exists because of
community and for community认识到图书馆
因社区存在,为社区存在。
• Library staff knows people come first – not
things图书馆职员清楚摆在首位的是人,而
不是事。
Key Characteristics (Cont)
关键特征
• Actively solicits input from various community
segments汲取各个社区的营养
• Facilitates partnerships between library and
other agencies or between citizen groups and
appropriate organizations
• 促进图书馆和其他机构的合作,市民团体
件的合作
• Partnerships are beneficial to both the library
and the partner organization
• 合作有利于图书馆和其合作组织
Evaluating Potential Partnerships
评估潜在伙伴关系
• Partners must have common overlapping interests with
libraries in solving information needs/problems of local
citizens in certain domains
• 在帮助当地市民某些信息问题方面,合作
伙伴与图书馆存在共同的利益
• Wilder Collaboration Factors inventory is very helpful in
evaluating the potential and suitability of collaborative
partners – see http://www.wilder.org/WilderResearch/Research-Services/Pages/WilderCollaboration-Factors-Inventory.aspx
• 更广的合作因素有利于评估合作伙伴间的
潜能和和合适度。
University Case Study Applying SIVA
Marketing Mix Steps
运用SIVA 营销组合步骤的大学案例分析
• San Jose State University
• 圣何塞州立大学
• University Liaison system with academic teaching departments
• 大学学院间的联盟
• Each librarian responsible for collaborating with teachers in
assigned departments on library instruction, collection
management, and research
• 每位图书馆员负责在图书馆指导,信息收集管
理和研究方面与指定学院合作
SIVA Step 1 Understand Markets and
Customer Value
•
•
•
•
•
•
步骤一:了解市场和消费者的价值
For each academic department, meet with all
full-time teachers with open ended interview
questions focused on their needs, wants and
values. 通过采访,了解教师的需求和价值
Sample questions: 样本问题:
What are their research interests and teaching
specialties?
研究兴趣和教学特长是什么?
How have they used libraries to meet their
research needs? Their teaching needs?
如何利用图书馆满足他们的研究需求和教
学需求?
• What did they like about library services?
• 他们觉得喜欢图书馆服务?
• What would they change about library
services?
• 他们对图书馆服务做出什么改变?
• Did they assign papers or projects in their
courses? If yes, which courses?
他们是否布置作业?如果有,什么样的课
有作业?
• Did the students have adequate skills in
locating, using, and evaluating information
resources? [Here suggest library instruction,
collaborative assignments if appropriate]
• 学生是否具备寻找,使用和评估信息资源
的能力?(这里建议采取图书馆的指导和
SIVA Step 2 Create Customer Value
Proposition
步骤2 创造消费者价值说
Depending on faculty wants, needs, and values,
explore 基于教师的需求和价值,
•developing library Web guides for core courses;
•发展图书馆针对核心课程的网络指导
•offering library instructional sessions;
•提供图书馆指导性会议
•designing collaborative assignments.
•设计合作性作业
SIVA Step 3 Deliver Customer Value
步骤3 传递顾客价值
As needed, wanted, and valued by individual
departmental faculty –
正如每个部门所需求和看重的那样:
•Prepare library guides,
•准备图书馆指导
•Offer instructional sessions,
•举办指导性会议
•Develop collaborative assignments, and
•Support individual student research
•开展合作性作业,支持每个学生的研究工作
SIVA Step 4 Measure the Value Delivered
步骤四 评价所传递的价值
• Administer and analyze short student
feedback surveys after each instructional
session.
• 会后分析学生反馈
• Faculty review of library Web guides.
Encourage student suggestions for changes in
library guides.
• 教师复习图书馆网络指南。鼓励学生提出
更改性建议
• At end of class with collaborative assignments,
discuss success and failures from teacher’s
point of view. Administer and analyze student
feedback survey on learning as result of
assignment. Provide input on use of
information sources in the paper and
bibliography, including appropriate quality of
sources and accuracy of citing sources.
• 课后合作性作业方面,老师探讨成败,分
析学生完成作业后的学习情况,提供论文
和的文献的信息来源,包括来源的质量和
引用的准确性。
• Collect statistics on number of library sessions,
use of Web guides.
• 收集图书馆会议的次数和网络指导的统计
数据
• Maintain a log of assistance with specialized
research questions and answering success.
• 记录帮助解决研究问题的内容
Public Library Advocacy
SIVA Step 1 Understand Markets and
Customer Value
提倡公共图书馆的作用
SIVA 步骤一:理解市场和顾客价值
• Identify main target audiences and representative
community groups – can be formal or informal
organizations
• 坚定主要受众和社区代表
• Offer instructional sessions to each of these groups
• 开展指导性会议
• Conduct informal focus group sessions after
instructional sessions to obtain feedback on
customer wants, needs and values
• 会后组织非正式的组织会议,搜集股客人需求和
价值
Public Library Advocacy
SIVA Step 2 Create Customer Value
Proposition
步骤二: 创造顾客价值说
• Review primary wants, needs, and values of
community groups and identify organizational assets
and resources that could be focused on meeting wants,
needs and values.
• 回顾社区组织的所需和价值,鉴定组织资产和资产。
• Evaluate the potential community partnerships and
select the most promising ones [number selected may
depend on combined organizational resources]
• 评估有潜力的社区合作关系,选择最具潜力的合作
社区。
Public Library Advocacy
SIVA Step 3 Deliver Customer Value
步骤3:传递顾客价值
Embed a librarian in each selected community
organization
在每个社区组织安排一位图书馆员
In collaboration with each community
organization, design and implement pilot
projects for each community partnership.
与每个社区组织合作方面,设计和实施先导
性实验
Follow these steps for designing and
implementing the pilot project:
具体步骤如下:
•Identify the problem that needs attention
•鉴定需关注的问题
•Define the various ways to solve the problem
•鉴定解决问题的各种方式
•Select the process that appears to have the
greatest chance of working
•甄选最可靠地运作过程
•Set out the criteria against which to measure
the success of the specific problem solving
efforts
•制定衡量解决具体问题的标准。
•Carry out the effort
•具体操作
Public Library Advocacy
SIVA Step 4 Measure the Value Delivered
步骤4:测量所传递的价值
• Evaluate what occurs
• 评估所发生的情况
• Reflect upon whether the results have solved
the problem to a satisfactory degree
• 反思问题解决的满意程度
Conclusion总结
Library instruction as advocacy is a great way to gain
community support and engagement with key information
values, such as:
图书馆指导师获得社区支持以及重点信息价值,比如:
•literacy,
•信息素养
•reading,
•阅读
•education, and
•教育
•preservation of local arts and culture.
•保护当地艺术和文化
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Library Instruction as Advocacy - Evergreen Education Foundation