Physical Development • Students need information on Physical Development. • Physical changes affect behavior. • Rapid growth = increased nutritional needs. • Do not stereotype according to physical characteristics. • Exploratory areas require coordination to master, and many students have poor fine motor skills. •Many girls may experience the first signs of menstrual period during school day. •Many are restless and uncomfortable much of the time. •Sitting for long periods of time is likely to have negative effects. •Compulsions to “check themselves out” •Overactive glands Therefore….. • Design a comprehensive health, PE and fitness program that is relevant to the specific needs and capabilities of the young adult. • Plan opportunities for all to experience physical success- Intramural sports. • Provide adequate nutrition. • Vary the pace of lessons. Intellectual Development Concrete to Abstract thinkers • Shorter attention spans than elementary and high school age students • Like to use their vivid imaginations and link it to problem solving • Your classes will hold the entire spectrum of development. • The shift in thinking from concrete to abstract is continually ongoing, so be flexible with lesson plans. •Physical and intellectual development happens concurrently. Get students up and moving to engage body and mind. •They can experience metacognition. •They begin to understand what is meaningful and useful and find applications in their own lives. Therefore……… • Begin lessons with the concrete. • Create short and intense lessons. • Allow students to interact with the materials and each other. • Ask exploratory questions that require higher level thinking. • Be prepared for off track responses. • Leave some questions unanswered. •Create an environment where taking risks is safe. •Create authentic lessons, demonstrations and experiences. •Use visual aids. •Provide opportunities for students to explore materials for themselves either individually or in a group. •Utilize a wide variety of teaching techniques. •Ensure opportunities to rehearse and practice key concepts. Emotional Development • Self-regulation of their emotions is difficult. • This emotional variability places young adolescents at high risk of making decisions that may have negative impact. • Plan on incidences and events that will trigger emotions which will disrupt the learning process. Therefore….. • Know thyself and how you will react. • Understand and accept the typical behaviors of this age group. • Be an honest and available role model. • Be a good and attentive listener. • Avoid sarcasm. • Help students to feel skilled and competent. • Provide praise and reinforcement in appropriate ways. •Create an environment in which students can experience acceptance by peers. •Help students feel acceptance by adults. Give them praise and encouragement. Social Development • There is a huge need to be part of a social group. • There are some who feel like targets. • This is a time for shyness due to self consciousness. • Your background is different and you may have trouble relating. (For example, if you are extroverted and you have an extremely shy student, try not to become impatient.) Therefore….. • You should design and participate in schoolbased social activities. Go to the dances! Sponsor an after school club or field trip. • Encourage student to participate in intramural sports, or the programs in music, arts, drama, journalism or other interest areas. • Help students feel acceptance by peers. • Help students see how they fit into the roles society expects of them. •Allow students to work in groups to peer teach. •Group students with others of socially different backgrounds. •Provide opportunities for community involvement. •Respect their constant need for social selfdefinition. They are searching for an identity that fits. Character Development Intrapersonal Attributes 1. Self-discovery 2. Self- management 3. Delayed gratification 4. Courage 5. Honesty Interpersonal Attributes 1. Empathy 2. Altruism 3. Problem Solving 4. Tolerance 5. Self Deftness •Some students are from homes that emphasize a very strict moral code, while others grow up with few restrictions. •Students are continually faced with contradictions concerning character. •Students are especially vulnerable to falling into the “wrong crowd”. Therefore…… • Model moral discipline • Teach positive values that match the community and make them part of the curriculum • Use discussions as ethical arguments for students to analyze. • Promote care beyond the classroom. • Teach conflict-resolution. • Respect student’s personal environments.