Furniture and Fittings Styles A list of some the common furniture styles in chronological order; • Baroque style (1600-1750’s) • Shaker style (1820-1860’s) • Victorian style (1840-1920’s) • Art Nouveau style (1880-1910’s) • Postmodern style (1960-1970’s) • Modern style (1970-today) Baroque Style It had a marked effect upon furniture design throughout western Europe during the 17th century. The Baroque art began in Rome, Italy and spread to Spain, German, Australia, France and Britain. Large wardrobes, cupboards, and cabinets had twisted columns, broken pediments, and heavy moldings. In Baroque furniture the details are related to the whole; instead of a framework of unrelated surfaces, each detail contributes to the harmonious movement of the overall design. Baroque is a style characterized by exaggeration of Movement Decorative excess Dramatic effects Chairs with high backs squared legs with curved, diagonal stretchers Use of curvaceous, arabesque forms (S and C-curves), scrolls and shells Shaker style It represents a substantial contribution of the utilitarian lifestyle of the religious group, the United Society of Believers. The style is based on pure simplicity. It was created to be simple but useful. Shaker furniture is simple and functional. It is made to show good craftsmanship and serve a purpose in the home. Common features in shaker style include: • Plain appearance • No decoration • Natural materials • Emphasis on function • Straight tapered legs Victorian style This style of furniture was named after Queen Victoria who reigned over England from 18371901.It relies on more gothic forms with dark finishes, elaborate carving and heavy proportions Ornamentation was extensive, mahogany and rosewood were often used, and to a lesser extent, oak. Late Victorian furniture was known for its straight lines and solid woods with dark stains and less upholstery than the earlier pieces. It was the first furniture style to be mass produced. Art Nouveau Art Nouveau is French new art and it emerged in the late 19th century in Paris. The style was said to be influenced strongly by the lithographs of Czech artist Alphonse Mucha, whose flat imagery with strong curved lines was seen as a move from the academic art of the time. Art Nouveau furniture used lines and curves as graphical ornamentation and hard woods and iron were commonly used to provide strong yet slim supporting structures to a furniture pieces. It is characterized by sudden curves and dynamic flowing lines and often incorporates floral designs and natural forms such as branches, leaves, waves and flames or vines. Modern style Modern furniture originated under the modernist movement in the early 1900’s. It often combines leather, vinyl, steel, moulded plywood and plastics with monochromatic color scheme to create sleek and stylish interiors Difference between modern and contemporary; Modern furniture design is a defined style and will always refer to the modernist period of time, contemporary furniture design however, refers to furniture that is popular and used now, in the present. Contemporary combines influences, trends, and new technologies without strict adherence to any one design philosophy. Current trends include designs that blend styles and periods but are streamlined for today’s taste. Modern furniture has a very distinguishable shape The shapes tend to be very angular, with a lot of right angle corners, distinct edges, and overall lines that mat be asymmetrical or otherwise not quite square. This is usually very little in the way of carving , decoration, or other intricate details. Surfaces are typically very smooth in texture and flow in an even line from one end of the piece to the other. Iconic examples of modern furniture Marcel Breuer's Wassily Chair The Wassily chair, also known as the Model B3 chair, was designed by Marcel Breuer in 1925- 26. This stylish, stark and sleek design is supported on tubular metal runners. The design of the chair is most interesting in that it is a symmetrical abstraction of wafer thin, geometric planes that appears to be suspended in space. This modernist creation is perhaps one of the most iconic furniture designs of all times. Eileen Gray side table Designed in 1927 as a bedside table for a guest room , in the home Eileen Gray designed for herself (and Jean Badovici) in Cap Martin, France, the asymmetry of this piece is characteristic of her “nonconformist" design style in her architectural projects and furniture. Notably, this piece also has specific utility, as it can be adjusted such that one can eat breakfast in bed on it. Barcelona chair The Barcelona chair has come to represent the Bauhaus design movement. Many consider it to be functional art, rather than just furniture. Designed by Mie’s Van Der Rohe and Lily Reich in 1929 for an international design fair in Barcelona, it is said to have been inspired by both the folding chairs of the Pharaohs, and the 'X' shaped footstools of the Romans, and dedicated to the Spanish royal family. Noguchi coffee table Noguchi table was designed by Isamu Noguchi. He was a sculptor, architect, furniture and landscape designer. He is famous for his organic modern forms. The Noguchi table has become famous for its unique and unmistakable simplicity. It is refined and at the same time natural, it is one of the most sought after pieces associated with the modern classic furniture movement.