Rome: Expansion
Roman Government - Other
• Senate
• Magistrates
• Consuls
• Praetors
• Censors
• Assemblies Groups of citizens who voted
on various things within the government.
• Tribunes – 10 elected officials from the
assemblies who would vote to
approve/disapprove of actions of the Senate or
other officials.
The Army
All male citizens had to serve in the army
for a certain amount of time. (most
commanders were patrician, though
plebeians could rise)
Legion- Basic unit of the military 4000-6000
soldiers divided into groups of 100
Auxilia- Army units of non-citizens.
Conquered territories were required to
provide troops
Very strict discipline, and strong incentives.
“Strength and Honor”
Expanding beyond Italy
Romans were proud of their government
and culture- thought it was their destiny to
be superior to other cultures
Allowed conquered people to keep their
own Language, customs, religion etc… as
long as they obeyed Roman law. (pay
taxes, provide troops for Auxilia)
Most societies adapt and blend into Rome
(cosmopolitan society)
The Punic Wars (Rome Vs.
Who are we fighting and why is it
Carthage is a city in North Africa.
Largest power on South side of Mediterraneanexpanding (like Rome)
Wanted territory in Sicily, Sardinia, Spain- and
so did Rome
Carthage=Sea Power Rome= Land Power
First large scale war for Rome- cemented who
they were and what they were about
First Punic War
264-241 bc
Main argument was over Sicily
War took time to start b/c Rome needed to build
a navy to compete with Carthage (stole one of
their boats and copied it).
Developed “boarding bridges” to allow them to
engage in hand-to-hand combat.
Rome wins (sort of)- gets Sicily and forces
Carthage to pay Reparations (damages- costs of
Second Punic War
Carthage Strikes back 218-202 BCE
Carthage has a great commander- Hannibal. He
attacks Rome from the North (unexpected) and
uses Scorched Earth- destroys everything he
passes to create panic.
Cannae- 216 BCE biggest defeat Rome will ever
have- can anything stop Hannibal?
Rome decided the best plan is attack Carthagedraw Hannibal home- send Scipio
202 BCE Hannibal killed at battle of ZamaRome wins again- gets Spain
Third Punic War
149-146 bc
Carthage is defeated- but Rome decides
that as long as it exists- it is still a threatno one can challenge Rome and live
Attack and wipe the city off the earth
For good measure- conquer
Macedon/Greece because they had been
Carthage’s ally.
Results of Punic Wars
Rome is master of the Mediterranean
Have Spain, North Africa, Greece
Divide conquered territories into
provinces- each with a governor appointed
by the senate
Conquered citizens become Roman
subjects (not citizens)
Changes in The Roman Republic
• Senate/nobles more powerful
• Formation of corrupt, provincial governments.
• Agriculture
• Small farmers lose land
• Rome begins to get grain from outer provinces.
• Farmers cannot afford to rebuild – sell land and
move to cities.
• Urban poor depend on government for food
• New class of wealthy businessmen (equites)

Rome: The Punic Wars - Kenston Local Schools