Chapter 28 – Modified by Fleck

Risk Analysis
Slide Set to accompany
Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 7/e
by Roger S. Pressman
Slides copyright © 1996, 2001, 2005, 2009 by Roger S. Pressman
For non-profit educational use only
May be reproduced ONLY for student use at the university level when used in conjunction
with Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach, 7/e. Any other reproduction or use is
prohibited without the express written permission of the author.
All copyright information MUST appear if these slides are posted on a website for student
use.
Coming up: Project Risks
1
Project Risks
What can go wrong?
What is the likelihood?
What will the damage be?
What can we do about it?
Coming up: Option 1: Deal with the problem when it occurs
2
Option 1: Deal with the
problem when it occurs
Caller: I have a slight
problem, I’m trapped in
my burning house
911: Fire truck on it’s way
Coming up: Option 2: Contingency plan: Plan ahead what you will do when the risk occurs
3
Option 2: Contingency plan: Plan ahead
what you will do when the risk occurs
Coming up: Option 3: Risk mitigation: Lessen the probability of the risk occuring. Reduce the
impact of occurence
4
Option 3: Risk mitigation: Lessen the
probability of the risk occuring. Reduce
the impact of occurence
Lets read about
not playing with
fire
Reduce probability
Coming up: Risk Management Paradigm
Reduce impact
5
Risk Management Paradigm
control
track
RISK
identify
plan
analyze
Coming up: How to identify risks
6
How to identify risks

Common risks - many risks are common to many project.
Start with a list of these. (Your book has a list, and the web
has many)

Some examples:
•
•
•
•
Schedule is optimistic, "best case," rather than realistic, "expected case”.
Layoffs and cutbacks reduce team’s capacity
Development tools are not in place by the desired time
End user ultimately finds product to be unsatisfactory, requiring redesign
and rework.
• Customer insists on new requirements.
• Vaguely specified areas of the product are more time-consuming than
expected.
• Personnel need extra time to learn unfamiliar software tools or
environment
7
Risk Projection

Risk projection, also called risk estimation,
attempts to rate each risk in two ways



the likelihood or probability that the risk will occur
the consequences of the problems associated with
the risk, should it occur.
The are four risk projection steps:




establish a scale that reflects the perceived likelihood
of a risk occuring (high, medium, low or numeric)
delineate the consequences of the risk
estimate the impact of the risk on the project and the
product if it occurs
note the overall accuracy of the risk projection so that
there will be no misunderstandings.
These slides are designed to accompany Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 7/e
(McGraw-Hill 2009). Slides copyright 2009 by Roger Pressman.
8
Building a Risk Table
Risk
Probability
Impact Exposure
Text description of the
risk
RMMM
Risk
Mitigation
Monitoring
&
Management
Probability of occurance
Impact if occurs
(Negligible=1…Catestrophic=5)
Coming up in
a few slides…
These slides are designed to accompany Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 7/e
(McGraw-Hill 2009). Slides copyright 2009 by Roger Pressman.
9
Building the Risk Table


Estimate the probability of occurrence
Estimate the impact on the project on a
scale of 1 to 5, where



1 = low impact on project success
5 = catastrophic impact on project success
Determine the exposure:


Risk Exposure = Probability x Impact
Some use cost to the project rather than
impact, but in my experience cost is hard to
estimate accurately. - Fleck
These slides are designed to accompany Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 7/e
(McGraw-Hill 2009). Slides copyright 2009 by Roger Pressman.
10
Risk Exposure Example




Risk identification. Only 70 percent of the software
components scheduled for reuse will, in fact, be integrated into
the application. The remaining functionality will have to be
custom developed.
Risk probability. 80% (likely).
Risk impact. 60 reusable software components were planned.
If only 70 percent can be used, 18 components would have to
be developed from scratch (in addition to other custom
software that has been scheduled for development). Since the
average component is 100 LOC and local data indicate that the
software engineering cost for each LOC is $14.00, the overall
cost (impact) to develop the components would be 18 x 100 x
14 = $25,200.
Risk exposure. RE = 0.80 x 25,200 ~ $20,200.
These slides are designed to accompany Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 7/e
(McGraw-Hill 2009). Slides copyright 2009 by Roger Pressman.
11
Risk Mitigation, Monitoring,
and Management



mitigation—how can we avoid the risk?
monitoring—what factors can we track that
will enable us to determine if the risk is
becoming more or less likely?
management—what contingency plans do
we have if the risk becomes a reality?
These slides are designed to accompany Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 7/e
(McGraw-Hill 2009). Slides copyright 2009 by Roger Pressman.
12
Risk Management Paradigm
Key step:
Once you have
created your risk
spreadsheet… you
must track and
update it as things
change.
control
track
RISK
identify
plan
analyze
These slides are designed to accompany Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 7/e
(McGraw-Hill 2009). Slides copyright 2009 by Roger Pressman.
13
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