Human Learning
(PLLT) 78-86
Mention the 4 aspects that you need to
take into account before teaching
something to your students
Mention the 4 aspects that you need to
know take into account before teaching
something to your students

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
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Entry behavior
Objectives to be reached
Methods of training
Evaluation procedure
What’s learning?
What’s learning?


- “acquiring or getting of knowledge
of a subject or a skill by study,
experience, or instruction”
- “a relatively permanent change in
behavioral tendency, … the result of
reinforced practice”
How did Pavlov conceive
learning?
How did Pavlov conceive
learning?

For Pavlov, the learning process
consisted of the formation of
associations between stimuli and
reflexive responses.
Why did Skinner call Pavlovian
conditioning respondent
conditioning?
Why did Skinner call Pavlovian
conditioning respondent
conditioning?
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Because Pavlovian conditioning was
more concerned with respondent
behavior –that is, behavior that is
elicited by a preceding stimulus.
Stimulus  behavior
What are reinforcers in
operant conditioning?
What are reinforcers in
operant conditioning?

They are the consequences of our
behavior.
What are operants in
operant conditioning?
What are operants in
operant conditioning?

They are classes of responses that
are emitted and governed by
the consequences they
produce.
What are respondents in
operant conditioning?
What are respondents in
operant conditioning?

They are sets of responses that are
elicited by identifiable stimuli.
What happens if parents
ignore their child’s crying?
What happens if parents
ignore their child’s crying?

So that the absence of reinforcers
extinguishes the behavior
What is punishment?
What’s punishment?

It could be either the withdrawal of
a positive reinforcer or the
presentation of an aversive
stimulus.
Mention some disadvantages
of punishments:
Mention some disadvantages
of punishments:



They don’t “erase” the response that
we want to avoid
They generate “fear”
“..both the punished organism and
the punishing agency are in
disadvantage”
According to Skinner, what’s
the best way to extinct a
response?
According to Skinner, what’s
the best way to extinct a
response?

The best way is with the absence of
reinforcement towards negative
responses, as well as reinforcing
positively the alternative responses.
What was Skinner’s model
contribution to language
teaching?
What was Skinner’s model
contribution to language
teaching?


He says that virtually any subject matter
can be taught effectively and successfully
by a carefully designed program of stepby-step reinforcement.
It was possible to create programmed
instruction.
What was Ausubel’s idea of
learning?
What was Ausubel’s idea of
learning?

Learning takes place in humans
trough a meaningful process of
relating new events or items to
already existing cognitive concepts
or propositions.
Mention some mental processes in
which Ausubel’s Meaningful Learning
Theory can be applied
Mention some mental processes in
which Ausubel’s Meaningful Learning
Theory can be applied

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Acquisition of new meanings
Retention
Psychological organization of
knowledge as a hierarchichal
structure
Eventual occurrence of forgetting
What’s the difference between
rote learning and meaningful
learning?
What’s the difference between
rote learning and meaningful
learning?

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Rote learning involves mental storage of
items having little or no association with
existing cotnitive structure.
Meaningful learning may be described as
a process of relating and anchoring new
material to relevant established entities
in cognitive structure.
when it says that knowledge should
be subsumed?
What does Ausubel’s theory mean
when it says that knowledge should
be subsumed?

It means that new information
should be related to already existing
elements in cognitive structure so
that it becomes meaningful.
What does Frank Smith mean
when he says that you can
manufacture meaningful learning?
What does Frank Smith mean
when he says that you can
manufacture meaningful learning?

He says that we can make new
learning become meaningful if we
are really motivated to do so. You
can use mnemonics and / or other
techniques to make your learning be
meaningful.
Why is meaningful learning so
important if rote learning also
means “learning”?
Why is meaningful learning so
important if rote learning also
means “learning”?

Because meaningful learning allows
retention and long-term memory
while rote learning will be gone as
soon as the needed information is
used.
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