Chapter 13 Lecture Preventing Exercise-Related and Unintentional Injuries © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives • Discuss the role of overtraining in increasing the risk of exercise-related injury • List the signs and symptoms of overtraining • Discuss possible causes of muscle strains and ways in which they can be avoided • Define tendonitis and discuss how it should be treated © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives (cont.) • Discuss ligament sprains and how to avoid them • Describe the most common injuries to the lower extremities • Outline a general plan for reducing the incidence of exercise-related injuries • Discuss the general guidelines for the treatment of injuries • Define cryokinetics, and discuss its use in the rehabilitation process © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Injury Risk/Causes from Physical Activity Main Causes of Exercise Injury • Improper training techniques – Overtraining syndrome: a major cause of injury – Inappropriate recovery period • Inadequate shoes – Runners especially benefit from proper footwear – Use shoes specifically designed for your activities • Alignment abnormalities in legs and feet • Improper exercise techniques – Excessive distance or duration – Drastic changes in exercise routine © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Intrinsic/Extrinsic Risk Factors in Exercise Intrinsic Factors • Age • Body size and composition • Physical fitness level • Bone density and structure • Gender (hormones) • Muscle flexibility and strength Extrinsic Factors • Environmental conditions (terrain, surface, weather) • Equipment (footwear, clothing) • Type of activity (competitive vs. leisure) • Intensity and amount of activity • Warm-up © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Common Conditions and Injuries Back Pain • Cause: Muscle weakness in abdomen and lower back • Prevention: Increase flexibility and strength, reduce body fat, and improve muscle imbalances • Complete Lab 13.2: Assessing Flexibility and Back Pain Risk Acute Muscle Soreness • Cause: Excessive duration or intensity • Prevention: Begin/end exercise sessions gradually, not suddenly Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness • Cause: Excessive duration/intensity • Prevention: Refrain from strenuous or prolonged exercise Muscle Strains • Cause: Overstretched muscle or muscles forced to shorten against a heavy load • Prevention: Limit stress on muscles, always warm up © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Common Conditions and Injuries (cont.) Tendonitis • Cause: Swelling in the tendon • Prevention: Proper exercise technique, avoiding joint overuse Ligament Sprains • Cause: Excessive force applied to a joint • Prevention: Use a brace/refrain from high-stress activities Torn Cartilage • Cause: High force or unusual movements • Prevention: Limit high-stress activities on joint/avoid movements outside normal range of motion Complete Lab 13.1: Preventing Injuries During Exercise © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscle Strain © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Common Lower Extremities Injuries Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) • Cause: Patella "off track," causing wear and pain • Prevention: Use proper exercise technique, avoid stress on the knee, strengthen quadriceps, use proper footwear Shin Splints • Cause: Muscle/tendon irritation, or inflammation of the connective tissue, overuse • Prevention: Run on soft surfaces, wear well-padded, shockabsorbing shoes, advance exercise slowly Stress Fractures • Cause: Excessive force applied to the leg or foot, overuse • Prevention: Avoid overtraining - increase load gradually, maintain flexibility in legs/hips © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Shin Splints © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Stress Fractures © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Managing Injuries Treating Less-Severe Injuries • Initial Treatment of Exercise-Related Injuries – Objectives: Decrease pain, limit swelling, prevent further injury – R.I.C.E: Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation • Rehabilitation (increasing use as pain lessens) – Minor injury rehab occurs naturally – Drawbacks: Progress slow, may get re-injured, lack of more aggressive treatment may prevent return of full functioning • Cryokinetics: New rehab technique – Regimen of alternating ice with light exercise © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Cryokinetic Process © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Preventing Unintentional Injuries Unintentional injuries are #1 killer of people ages 15–34 in the United States • Risk Factors for Unintentional Injury – – – – – – Having an unsafe attitude Being overly confident Craving excitement/thrill-seeking Using alcohol or drugs Stress Environmental factors (storing unsafe or combustible chemicals, using equipment incorrectly) • Check your likelihood of an unintentional injury—see Steps for Behavior Change box within the chapter © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Treating Unintentional Injuries Best Method: Take a First-Aid or CPR Course • Choking – Abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver) • Poisoning – Check the label for key information/contact the Poison Control Center and/or 911 • Bleeding – Lie the person down, remove dirt/debris from wound, apply pressure until bleeding stops, don't remove bandages, get to emergency room ASAP • Stopped Breathing or heartbeat – Call 911 immediately; if trained, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Reduce Risk of Unintentional Injury © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Heimlich Maneuver © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary • The main factors associated with exercise-related injuries are improper training techniques, inadequate shoes, and alignment problems in the legs and feet • Exercises to increase flexibility and strength, reduce body fat, and improve muscle balance between the stomach and back can decrease your risk of developing back problems • Tendonitis, or inflammation of a tendon, is one of the most common of all overuse problems associated with physical activity • Common injuries to the lower extremities include patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), shin splints, and stress fractures © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary (cont.) • When treating injuries, remember the R.I.C.E. (rest, ice, compression, elevation) protocol and cryokinetics treatment • Risk factors for accidents and injuries include unsafe attitudes, stress, drug use, and an unsafe environment • Basic first aid involves knowing the Heimlich maneuver and how to treat bleeding and poisonings • Do not perform CPR unless you have been certified through the American Red Cross or other credible program © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.