Chapter 13 Lecture
and Unintentional
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Learning Objectives
• Discuss the role of overtraining in increasing the
risk of exercise-related injury
• List the signs and symptoms of overtraining
• Discuss possible causes of muscle strains and
ways in which they can be avoided
• Define tendonitis and discuss how it should be
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Learning Objectives (cont.)
• Discuss ligament sprains and how to avoid them
• Describe the most common injuries to the lower
• Outline a general plan for reducing the incidence
of exercise-related injuries
• Discuss the general guidelines for the treatment
of injuries
• Define cryokinetics, and discuss its use in the
rehabilitation process
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Injury Risk/Causes from Physical Activity
Main Causes of Exercise Injury
• Improper training techniques
– Overtraining syndrome: a major cause of injury
– Inappropriate recovery period
• Inadequate shoes
– Runners especially benefit from proper footwear
– Use shoes specifically designed for your activities
• Alignment abnormalities in legs and feet
• Improper exercise techniques
– Excessive distance or duration
– Drastic changes in exercise routine
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Intrinsic/Extrinsic Risk Factors in Exercise
Intrinsic Factors
• Age
• Body size and composition
• Physical fitness level
• Bone density and structure
• Gender (hormones)
• Muscle flexibility and strength
Extrinsic Factors
• Environmental conditions (terrain, surface, weather)
• Equipment (footwear, clothing)
• Type of activity (competitive vs. leisure)
• Intensity and amount of activity
• Warm-up
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Common Conditions and Injuries
Back Pain
• Cause: Muscle weakness in abdomen and lower back
• Prevention: Increase flexibility and strength, reduce body fat, and
improve muscle imbalances
• Complete Lab 13.2: Assessing Flexibility and Back Pain Risk
Acute Muscle Soreness
• Cause: Excessive duration or intensity
• Prevention: Begin/end exercise sessions gradually, not suddenly
Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness
• Cause: Excessive duration/intensity
• Prevention: Refrain from strenuous or prolonged exercise
Muscle Strains
• Cause: Overstretched muscle or muscles forced to shorten
against a heavy load
• Prevention: Limit stress on muscles, always warm up
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Common Conditions and Injuries (cont.)
• Cause: Swelling in the tendon
• Prevention: Proper exercise technique, avoiding joint
Ligament Sprains
• Cause: Excessive force applied to a joint
• Prevention: Use a brace/refrain from high-stress
Torn Cartilage
• Cause: High force or unusual movements
• Prevention: Limit high-stress activities on joint/avoid
movements outside normal range of motion
Complete Lab 13.1: Preventing Injuries During Exercise
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Muscle Strain
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Common Lower Extremities Injuries
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS)
• Cause: Patella "off track," causing wear and pain
• Prevention: Use proper exercise technique, avoid stress on the
knee, strengthen quadriceps, use proper footwear
Shin Splints
• Cause: Muscle/tendon irritation, or inflammation of the
connective tissue, overuse
• Prevention: Run on soft surfaces, wear well-padded, shockabsorbing shoes, advance exercise slowly
Stress Fractures
• Cause: Excessive force applied to the leg or foot, overuse
• Prevention: Avoid overtraining - increase load gradually, maintain
flexibility in legs/hips
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Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
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Shin Splints
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Stress Fractures
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Managing Injuries
Treating Less-Severe Injuries
• Initial Treatment of Exercise-Related Injuries
– Objectives: Decrease pain, limit swelling, prevent further
– R.I.C.E: Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
• Rehabilitation (increasing use as pain lessens)
– Minor injury rehab occurs naturally
– Drawbacks: Progress slow, may get re-injured, lack of more
aggressive treatment may prevent return of full functioning
• Cryokinetics: New rehab technique
– Regimen of alternating ice with light exercise
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The Cryokinetic Process
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Preventing Unintentional Injuries
Unintentional injuries are #1 killer of people ages 15–34
in the United States
• Risk Factors for Unintentional Injury
Having an unsafe attitude
Being overly confident
Craving excitement/thrill-seeking
Using alcohol or drugs
Environmental factors (storing unsafe or combustible
chemicals, using equipment incorrectly)
• Check your likelihood of an unintentional injury—see
Steps for Behavior Change box within the chapter
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Treating Unintentional Injuries
Best Method: Take a First-Aid or CPR Course
• Choking
– Abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver)
• Poisoning
– Check the label for key information/contact the Poison
Control Center and/or 911
• Bleeding
– Lie the person down, remove dirt/debris from wound, apply
pressure until bleeding stops, don't remove bandages, get to
emergency room ASAP
• Stopped Breathing or heartbeat
– Call 911 immediately; if trained, perform cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR)
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Reduce Risk of Unintentional Injury
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The Heimlich Maneuver
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• The main factors associated with exercise-related
injuries are improper training techniques, inadequate
shoes, and alignment problems in the legs and feet
• Exercises to increase flexibility and strength, reduce
body fat, and improve muscle balance between the
stomach and back can decrease your risk of developing
back problems
• Tendonitis, or inflammation of a tendon, is one of the
most common of all overuse problems associated with
physical activity
• Common injuries to the lower extremities include
patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), shin splints, and
stress fractures
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Summary (cont.)
• When treating injuries, remember the R.I.C.E.
(rest, ice, compression, elevation) protocol and
cryokinetics treatment
• Risk factors for accidents and injuries include
unsafe attitudes, stress, drug use, and an unsafe
• Basic first aid involves knowing the Heimlich
maneuver and how to treat bleeding and
• Do not perform CPR unless you have been
certified through the American Red Cross or
other credible program
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