Intro to Computing Research Research Philosophy Research Approach Research Strategies Time Horizons Data Collection Research Onion Research Philosophy • Your research philosophy depends on the way that you think about knowledge is developed or created, how we gain understanding of things (“epistemology”). • Your way of thinking will affect the way you go about doing research. • Generally, there are two key research philosophies, the positivism and phenomenology. Research Philosophy Positivism Research Approach Research Strategies Time Horizons Data Collection Phenomenology Philosophy - Positivism • You are working with an observable reality. Research can produce laws. Results can be generalised, similar to those produced by natural scientists. • You are working objectively, with little or no personal interpretation of the data. • You need a structured methodology to gain quantitative data which is replicable and can be analysed using stats. Philosophy - Phenomenology • You are researching human behaviour. This may be too complex to follow a definite law in the same way as the natural sciences. • Generalisability is not of crucial importance, since we are focussing on a particular problem or situation • Phenomenology highlights the details of the situation to understand a reality working behind them. Research Philosophy Positivism Research Approach Research Strategies Time Horizons Data Collection Phenomenology The Research Approach Deductive Inductive Theory Theory Hypotheses Tentative Hypotheses Data Patterns Data Confirmation Data Deductive approach: testing theory Inductive approach: building theory Deductive vs. Inductive Deductive Approach Scientific principles Moving from theory to data The need to explain causal relationships between variables The collection of quantitative data The application of controls to ensure data validity A highly structured approach Researcher independence of what is being researched The necessity to select samples of sufficient size in order to generalise conclusions Inductive Approach Gaining an understanding of the meaning humans attach to events A close understanding of the research context The collection of qualitative data A more flexible structure to permit changes of research emphasis as the research progresses A realisation that the researcher is part of the research process Less concern with the need to generalise Research Philosophy Positivism Deductive Research Approach Research Strategies Time Horizons Data Collection Inductive Phenomenology Research Strategies Survey Method • The survey method is usually associated with the deductive approach – surveys are “experiments”. • It allows the collection of a large amount of data from a sizeable population in a highly economical way. • It is often conducted on questionnaire to answer those ‘What’ and ‘How’ questions. Its data are standardised and so allow easy comparison. • It gives you more control over the research process, however, it takes time to design and pilot a good questionnaire. Experimental Method The Experimental Method is a classical form of research that comes from the natural science. The process usually involves: 1. The definition of a theoretical hypothesis. 2. Select a sample of a population. 3. Allocate samples to different experimental conditions. 4. Introduce planned change on one variable (the “independent” variable). 5. Measure the change of an associated “dependent” variable. 6. Control of other variables. Research Philosophy Positivism Deductive Research Approach Experiment Research Strategies Survey Time Horizons Grounded Research Data Collection Focus Group Case Study Ethnography Inductive Phenomenology Time Horizons • Consider the amount of time you have, do you want your research to be a ‘snapshot’ or a ‘diary’? • The snapshot reflects the cross-sectional studies. • The diary reflects the longitudinal studies Research Philosophy Positivism Deductive Research Approach Experiment Research Strategies Cross Sectional Time Horizons Data Collection Survey Grounded Research Focus Group Longitudinal Case Study Ethnography Inductive Phenomenology Types of Data • Quantitative • Qualitative Research Philosophy Positivism Deductive Research Approach Experiment Research Strategies Cross Sectional Time Horizons Data Collection Survey Quantitative Grounded Research Qualitative Focus Group Longitudinal Case Study Ethnography Inductive Phenomenology Stages in a Research Project Wish to do Research Literature Review Data Collection Report Writing Research Topic, Questions Design Research Approaches Data Analysis Report Submitting Negotiate Access What is a Computing Independent Study? • Artefact – based – construction of an artefact – primary research on the artefact • Research – based – secondary research via the literature.