Chapter 4
Communication
1.Define communication and describe the process.
2.Contrast the three common type of small-group
networks
3.Identify factors affecting the use of the grapevine
4.Describe common barriers to effective
communication
5.List four rules for improving cross-cultural
communication
6.Outline behaviors associated with providing
effective feedback
7.Identify the behaviors related to effective active
listening
1. Define communication
1.1 Define
Communication must include both the
transference and understanding of
meaning.
1.2 Functions of Communication
Four major function:
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Control
Motivation
Emotional expression
Information
1.3 the Communication Process
Seven parts:
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the communication source
encoding
the message
the channel
decoding
the receiver
feedback
1.4 Direction of Communication
Downward
Upward
Lateral
1.5 Interpersonal Communication
Oral communication
Written communication
Nonverbal communication
2. Organizational Communication
2.1 Formal small-group networks
Chain
Wheel
All- channel
2.2 Informal networks
a. cluster chain (the grapevine)
b. gossip chain
c. probability chain
d. single strand chain
the grapevine
three main characteristics:
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First, it is not controlled by management.
Second, it is perceived by most employees as
being more believable and reliable than formal
communique issued by top management.
Third, it is largely used to serve the interest of
the people within it.
The evidence indicates that about 75
percent of what is carried is accurate.
?
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Important
Ambiguity
Anxiety
For employees, the grapevine is particularly
valuable for translating formal communications
into their group’s own jargon.
2.3 computer-aided communication
E-Mail
Intranet and extranet links
Videoconferencing
2.4 Barriers to effective communication
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Filtering
Selective perception
Information overload
Gender styles
Emotions
Language
Communication apprehension(沟通恐惧)
2.5 cross-cultural communication
Cultural context
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High-context cultures
more trust by parties
oral agreement
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Low-context cultures
directness
Enforceable contracts will tend to be in writing,
precisely worded, and highly legalistic.
A cultural guide
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Four rules
Implications for managers:
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Use multiple channels
Use feedback
Simplify language
Listen actively
Constrain emotions
Use the grapevine
Use feedback
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Focus on specific behaviors
Keep feedback impersonal
Keep feedback goal oriented
Make feedback well timed
Ensure understanding
Direct negative feedback toward behavior
that is controllable by the recipient
Listening skills
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Make eye contact
Exhibit affirmative head nods and
appropriate facial expressions
Avoid distracting actions or gestures
Ask questions
paraphrase
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1.4 Direction of Communication