Research Question
This could be a text, graph, illustration, picture, etc.
(In speech) Explain the research question, the specific
outcome you want to explain, and why it’s important.
Try to catch audience’s attention.
If you need to provide a background information, you
may add another slide.
Conventional Wisdom or Existing
• Make sure you name a few scholars for
each group of theories.
• e.g., Why anti-chinese sentiment?
Income disparity (Smith 1988, North 1995;
Zheng 2000)
Religious conflict with Muslim (Niou 1977;
Anderson 1985; Laitin 1999)
• This could be a text, a causal diagram, or,
• Explain the logic of the argument step by
• How does your argument differ from the
conventional wisdom or existing theories?
• Cases, time period, actors you examine
• Types of evidence (data, government’s
official document, newspaper coverage?).
• From the title slide to this methodology
slide, you should not spend more than 3
• You may have up to four slides on the
results section.
• Limit the number of characters used in one
slide to 200.
• Rather than describing everything you’ve
found, make tables, charts, graphs etc.
that capture the central findings.
Conclusion and Discussion
• Summarize what you have argued & found.
• Do findings confirm your argument? Be
honest either way.
• Discuss unsolved issues, future tasks,
places you need help etc.
• Discuss broader implications of your
findings. Future predictions, policy
prescription, etc.