Classroom Assessment, Grading, and
Standardized Testing
Chapter 14
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
ISBN 0137144547
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Basics of Assessment
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Measurement
Quantitative
Process of gathering information about
students’ learning
Formal
Informal
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Formative and Summative
Assessment
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Formative Assessment
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Occurs before or during instruction
Summative Assessment
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Occurs after instruction
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
3
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Norm-Referenced and
Criterion-Referenced Testing
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Norm-Referenced
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Comparison based on average
performance of others
Criterion-Referenced
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Comparison based on set standard
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
4
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Assessing Assessments:
Reliability and Validity
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Reliability
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Validity
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Likelihood that scores remain constant
across time and conditions
Likelihood that test is measuring what it is
intended to measure
Error in scores
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Higher reliability=lower error
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
5
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Using Tests from Textbooks


Designed for the typical classroom
Do test questions match what teacher
focused on in class?
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
6
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Objective Testing
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Multiple Choice, Matching, True/False
Stem
Distractors
Used by half of teachers, even though
3/4 of education professors reject them
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
7
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Essay Tests
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Should be focused on important,
complex learning objectives
Students require more time to answer
Expectations should be clear
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
8
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Evaluating Essays
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Use scoring criteria (rubrics) to help
eliminate subjectivity
Grade all responses to one question
before moving to other questions
Ask students to put name on back of
paper
Have a second reader check for
reliability
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
9
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Authentic Assessment
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
Require students to apply skills as they
would in real life
Includes assessment on writing,
speaking, listening, creating, critical
thinking, research, and application
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
10
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Portfolios
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A systematic collection of work
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Includes work in progress, revisions, work
analysis, and self-reflections
Document learning and progress
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
11
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Exhibitions
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Public display of work
A culminating experience
Issues of equity should be considered
Judgment should be kept as objective
as possible
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
12
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Informal Assessments
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

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Journals
Checklists
Observations
Rating scales
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
13
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Norm-Referenced v. Criterion
Referenced Grading

Norm-referenced grading


Student standing compared to other
students
Criterion-referenced grading

Student standing compared to a set
standard or list of accomplishments
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
14
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Effects of Grading on Students

Value of failing
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Some failure may be beneficial
Retention in grade
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
20% of high-school seniors have been
“held back”
Affiliated with dropout, low self-esteem,
lack of job opportunities
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
15
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Grades and Motivation
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Assessments should enhance motivation
Assessments should reflect meaningful
learning
Educator’s job: to select talent, or
develop talent?
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
16
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Beyond Grading:
Communicating with Families

Should be more than sending home
grades
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Notes
Phone calls for good news
Open houses
Websites
Portfolios
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
17
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Standardized Testing
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NCLB
Policy
Concerns among politicians
Global competition
Knowledge about standardized tests
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
18
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Types of Scores

Measurements of Central Tendency and
Standard Deviation
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Mean, median, mode
Standard Deviation

How widely scores vary from mean
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
19
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Normal Distribution



Bell curve
See graph on p. 522
68% of scores fall between 1 standard
deviation above and 1 standard
deviation below
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
20
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Percentile Rank Scores


Raw score compared to raw scores of
norm group
Caution in interpreting percentile scores
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
21
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Problems with High Stakes
Testing
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Very little test material overlaps with
curriculum
Narrows curriculum
Takes up valuable instructional time
Could be damaging to student beliefs
Educational Psychology, 11th Edition
Anita Woolfolk
ISBN 0137144547
22
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.