Public Relations
DPR 3B
TOCOM Model
Learning Unit 2.2
Student Manual pp 59-77
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PR goals and objectives [1]
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Goal related to one aspect of mission or purpose
Goal desired outcome of plan of action to solve specific
problem over life of campaign
Objective addresses specific aspect of problem
Several objectives contribute to achieving goal
Objective specifies communication outcome, target
public, expected level of attainment and time frame
Campaign outcome: inform, create awareness,
persuade, change behaviour, depending on vision,
mission and goals or organisation
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PR goals and objectives [2]
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PR goals and objectives set to achieve organisational
goals and objectives as part of PR strategy
Number of models of frameworks for development of PR
strategy
TOCOMM model used worldwide, using elements of the
systems theory
Systems theory:
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each system is a 'whole' that is more than the sum of its
parts, but also itself a 'part' of larger systems
interdependent and interactional nature of the relationships
that exist among all components of a system
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Mission/
Strategy
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
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1
Vision/
Goals
ORGANISATION
Structure / Processes
Communication
3
3
3
3
3
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Climate / Culture
Image / Reputation
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TOCOMM Model [1]
Twente Oganisational Communication Model
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TOCOMM is a framework for designing organisational
strategic communication
Framework has to be filled in with the reality of the
organisation and its environment
Framework by which communication within
organisation and between organisation and
environment can be analysed
Subsequently, interventions can be made and a
communication plan can be drawn up and
implemented
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TOCOMM Model [2]
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TOCOM model based on the systems theory
 Interaction
between organisation and environments, between
subsystems within organisation and between subsystems and the
organisation as a whole
 Implies that organisation consists of interrelated subparts where
the performance of a subsystem can affect the entire system
 Confirms Public Relations as helping to establish and maintain
mutually dependent relationships between organisations and
publics (Cutlip, Center & Broom, 1985)
 Confirms contribution of Public Relations as managerial
subsystem to success of organisation
 Confirms contribution of communication to coordination of internal
operations
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Four major components [1]
Communication
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Transparent circle: communication in organisation
Relates to vision/goals, structure/processes and
climate/culture
TOCOMM a communication model, takes organisational
change into account
Important to take financial situation into account, can
affect all decisions, ie communication, processes,
climate, et al
PR manager must estimate RoI when starting a PR
campaign
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Four major components [2]
Organisation
Model applies to organisation as a whole as well as to
various parts = solid inner circle
 Possible to define environment
 Outer circle echoes inner circle
 System wholeness and system hierarchy
 System networks = ways systems are connected to one
another
 Employees part of one or more networks
NB to refer to back to 3A strategy and systems theory
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Four major components [3.1]
Identity, image and reputation
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All three have an influence on the environment
Organisation reflects a self-identity
Members/employees reflect individual identities –
emotions, skills, behaviours
Reflected through messages, symbols, communication,
messages that develop image of organisation and over
time, its reputation
Information passes in two directions - incoming and
outgoing - and is modified along the way: input,
throughput, output
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Four major components [3.2]
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Continued existence depends on exchange of info
Contact with environment results in different kinds of
networks
Networks (inside and outside of organisation) have their
own goals, cultures, structures
Separate TOCOM model can apply for almost each
contact in the organisations environment, units,
members
Contacts described ito strengths or type
Contacts that organisation depends on for survival
described as stakeholders
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Four major components [4]
Vision/mission statement
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Prerequisite for good management is defined policy
principles to serve as points of reference
Requires a vision for communication derived from
organisation’s vision
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Homework
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Read example of application of how the TOCOM model
can be applied to a Public Relations strategy
Manual on pages 63 – 76
Prepare for class feedback and discussion
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