```The Scientific Method
Steps to the Scientific Method
• Problem State the problem
• Research
• Hypothesis form a hypothesis
• Experiment design & conduct experiment
• Analyze Collected Data
• Draw Conclusion support or reject
hypothesis
P-Problem  State the Problem
• Gives you a reason for doing
the experiment
• This question MUST be
testable/measurable
• Ex: Which car oil will allow
mileage?
Process It…Testable or Not?
Do cats make better pets than
dogs?
Process It…Testable or Not?
How do different types of
movement/activity affect human
heart rate?
Process It…Which is testable?
A. Which is the tastiest soda?
B. How many people will choose Dr.
Pepper over Coke?
R-Research
• In order to make an
educated guess
(hypothesis), you need to
about the problem you
are trying to solve.
• Ex: research various oils
and their properties.
H-Hypothesis  form a hypothesis
• A hypothesis is an educated
guess about the solution to your
problem based on your
research.
• This is done with an “if / then”
statement. .
• Ex: If I use Havoline car oil then
my Lamborghini Diablo will get
better gas mileage.
Hypothesis MUST be:
1. Testable/ Fact-based-“Dr. Pepper is the
tastiest soda” is not fact-based, it’s based
on opinion, and therefore can not be a
hypothesis.
2. A sentence, not a question!!
Process It…Testable or Not?
If I use Havoline car oil then it
will be better than Mobile
Oil.
Process It…Testable or Not?
•If I use Havoline car oil then
my Lamborghini Diablo will
get better gas mileage.
E-Experiment  Design and
conduct experiment
• This is done to test the hypothesis.
• Design an experiment that will
provide data to support or reject
– Ex: Test four different car oils found
during research
Parts of an Experiment
• Independent Variable – The part of an experiment
that you change.
• EX: car oil
• Dependent Variable- What you are
recording/observing. It changes according to how
the independent variable changes
• Ex: gas mileage
– ONLY test one variable at a time!!!!!!!!!!
Parts of an Experiment
• Constant variables- quantities that remain
constant (the same) aka “controlled
variables”
• Ex: same car, same road
• Control group- what is used to COMPARE
the results to. It is the variable in which no
independent variable has been applied.
• Ex: test run with the original brand of oil in
the car
A-Analyze Collected Data
• Observations are recorded
facts about what you see
during the experiment.
–Graph: IV’s go on the x-axis
DV’s go on y-axis
D-Draw Conclusion  Support
or reject hypothesis
• This is a brief statement about the results
of the experiment.
• In the conclusion state if the hypothesis
was correct (supported) or incorrect
(rejected).
• Claim, evidence, reasoning
•TYPES OF DATA
Observation or Inference
Observation- See with own eyes
(ex; the apple is red, it is raining outside,
the window is 6ft long
Inference: What you think might
be true but not sure.
(ex: She is wiping her eyes, she is crying, He
has hair on his shirt, he owns a cat)
Types of Observations
• Qualitative – Results are
descriptive.
–ex: the litmus paper turned red
• Quantitative – Results are
numerical and have a unit.
–ex: 5 meters, 45 seconds
Accuracy vs Precision
• Accuracy- nearness to the actual value
• Precision- how close the data is together
Accuracy and precision: the target example
Precise, but not
accurate
Accuracy and precision: the target example
Accurate,
not precise
Accuracy and precision: the target example
Neither
accurate,
nor precise
Accuracy and precision: the target example
Accurate
and
precise
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