Chapter 10 Infancy and Childhood
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I. Heredity Versus Environment
 A. Nature v. Nurture controversy
B. Nature – physical factors and
heredity
C. Nurture – the effects of
environment
D. Nature and nurture interaction in infants
1. 2 day old infants varied sucking
patterns in response to their
mothers voice suggests that
a) They have memory, sounds are
reinforcing and they learn from
their environment.
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E. Genetics
 1. Sperm contain 23 chromosomes
 2. Egg contains 23 chromosomes
 3. Zygote (fertilized egg) contains 46
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chromosomes.
 4. Chromosomes
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a. Contain genes that play a role in
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intelligence, activity level and
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response to a new stimuli.
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F. Twin studies
1. Dizygotic twins – fraternal twins
a. 2 different sperm and eggs
1) Genetic make up is no
different than any other two
siblings
2. Monozygotic twins – identical twins
a. Same sperm and egg, zygote
splits
1) identical genes and heredity
3. Psychologists study twins thoroughly
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a. Especially when reared apart
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1) They are very similar
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a) same fears and even
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nightmares as children,
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same jobs, same interests
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II. Developmental Patterns
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A. Family raised a chimp with their child
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1. Chimp developed faster at first
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2. Child passed up chimp at 2 years
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3. This study shows that development
within a species
a. Is orderly and follows a specific
timetable.
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B. Humans have a longer developmental
period
1.
Timing of development is different
for each child.
2.
Must integrate brains with body
movements
3.
Baby has automatic reflexes with
control.
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C. Maturational processes
1. Child is preprogrammed for certain
activities like walking (can’t teach
them)
a. Even if they never practice they
will eventually walk normally.
2. Maturation is the automatic,
orderly, and sequential process of
physical and mental development.
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D. Growth Cycles
 1. Some developmental areas develop
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more rapidly or slowly
 2. At age 8 – 95% of the basic structure
of the brain has developed
a. but the body has 55% developed
b. reproductive system is 90%
undeveloped
 3. Growth cycle for girls is more orderly
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and stable than boys.
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E. Critical Periods
1. Definition
 a. A specific time period in an
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animal’s maturation when a skill
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may be learned, if it is not
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learned it will never occur.
2. Imprinting –Conrad Lorenz
a. Imprinting is a critical period
b. Ducks and some other birds are
programmed to accept a mother
figure at a certain time.
1) It is a result of chemical being
released at a certain time.
a) if an animal’s chemistry is
altered, the critical period
can be extended or
eliminated.
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3. Dogs critical period
a. attachments up to 12 weeks.
1) afterwards they are
unpredictable.
4. Babies critical period
a. 1st month – smile without
learning
b. 2nd month – smiles as a response
to sounds.
1) blind children do also,
therefore is not learned.
5. Animals and humans critical period
 a. Need touching, holding from birth
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1) if not the result is disastrous
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2) A young girl named Genie was
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locked up without human
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contact for at least 5 years
6. Human critical period
a. To learn foreign language with
natural accent
1) Must learn before 12 years
2) a few people with a special
ability will be more
successful
7. Animals
a. Must learn a particular skill during
their critical period or it will never be
learned.
8. Feral children miss critical periods
a. Children supposedly raised by animals
1) one documented case
a) Boy living in woods
discovered at 11
b) could not speak, did not
growl or act like an animal
c) missed maturation of social
settings
d) had no human skills like
speech and writing would
not fully recover.
III. The Family and Child Development
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A. Extended family
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a. Includes aunts, uncles, grandparents
B. Nuclear family
a. Parents and children
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C. Divorce rate – over 50%
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a. Before children reach 18
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a. 50-60% will spend at least 1 year
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in a single parent family
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D. Step parents
1. Are often resented along with step siblings
2. Family should integrate slowly so that
children get used to the new arrangement
E. Income
1. Most families need more than one income
2. The women in most families work outside
the home
3. Women still do most of the household
chores even though they work
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Mothers working outside the home
1. Their children have the same level
of attachment as those of home
moms
a. even thought they spend half
the time with their children
b. If moms like their job their
relationship with their children
is stronger
G. Fathers
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1. spend less time with their
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children but do the same things
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with them as moms
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2. help children with their self
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esteem
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3. When father is absent
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a. boys are just as masculine as
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boys living with their fathers
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b. do not get into more trouble
c. have good self esteem if they are
cared for properly.
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H. Parenting styles
1. Permissive
a. Allow children to do whatever
they want.
b. Child does not learn what
behavior is unacceptable
2. Authoritarian (dictatorial)
a. Tyrants, rigid, inflexible, harsh
b. Children with these parents are
moody, have poor self esteem,
no social skills
3. Authoritative
a. Have authority, not a dictator
b. flexible and caring
I. Child Abuse ( 100,000s cases a year)
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1. Discipline allows a child to grow
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psychologically
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2. Slapping and hitting is not the best
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way to solve problems
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a. Does not teach right or wrong
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b. can get out of control and lead to
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child abuse.
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3. Why would a parent abuse a child?
a. Don’t know much about children
b. Not mature themselves
1. Looks for love from a baby rather
than the responsibility
c. Come from a violent or abusive
background
d. Financial problems and isolation
e. Unemployment
f. Stress, alcoholism, psychological
problems.
g. Teenage parents
IV Sequences of Development
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A. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
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Development
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1. The way a child’s thinking and
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reasoning change and grow.
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2. See handout
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B. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral
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Development
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1. The development of ideas about
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right and wrong
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s. See handout
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Chp 10 Child Development Power Point