How effective do you feel the present
form of American government is?
A. Very effective
B. Somewhat effective
C. Somewhat ineffective
D. Very ineffective
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Chapter 7 A More Perfect
Union(1777-1790)
Section 3 A New Plan of
Government
What ideas and features are found in
the United States Constitution?
Roots of the Constitution
• After 4 months the Constitution
was written
• It was a unique American
document, but had roots in
many other civilizations
• They looked at history so they
could avoid mistakes made in
the past
• The Framers of the
Constitution were familiar with
Parliamentary system of Britain
• Many Framers were in the
colonial assemblies and state
assemblies
• They valued individual rights
• They respected many of the
British traditions (cultural
beliefs and practices)
English Influences
• Magna Carta- Placed
limits on the monarchs
• Parliament controlled the
funds for wars and the
government
• The colonial assemblies
worked the same way
• The assemblies had some
control over the colonial
governors
• The English Bill of Rights1689
• During the Enlightenment
philosophers John Locke
and baron de Montesquieu
had ideas that the Framers
used
John Locke
• Locke believed people
should have natural rights
• Including life, liberty, and
property
• Government is based on
an agreement between
the people and the ruler
• Americans interpreted
natural rights as the rights
of Englishmen defined in
the Magna Carta and
English Bill of Rights
• Protected the peoples
rights by limiting the
government’s power
The idea of protecting people’s natural
rights was reflected in the work of which of
the following?
A. English philosopher
John Locke
B. French writer
Baron de Montesquieu
C. King George III
D. Italian philosopher
Niccolò Machiavelli
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B.
C.
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B
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C
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C
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Baron De Montesquieu
• Said the powers of
government should be
separated and balanced
against each other
• This would keep any one
person or group from
gaining too much power
• Powers of government
should be clearly defined
and limited to prevent
abuse
• Following Montesquieu’s
ideas the Framers
specified and divided the
powers of government
The Federal System
• The Constitution divided
powers between national
(federal) government and
the states
• Federalism- sharing
power between federal
and state governments
• Under the Constitution,
the federal government
gained powers
• Taxing, regulating trade,
controlling currency,
raising an army, and
declaring war
• Also can pass any law
that is “necessary and
proper”
• Important powers were
also left to the states
The Supreme Law of the Land
• The Constitution and
the laws that Congress
passed were to be “
the supreme law of the
land”
• No state can make a
law against the
Constitution
• Disputes between the
federal government
and the states would
be settled by federal
courts
• On the basis of the
Constitution
Branches of GovernmentLegislative Branch
• Article I established
Congress as the
legislative branch
• Law making branch
• House of
Representatives and
the Senate
• Powers of Congress
include: collecting
taxes, coining money,
and regulating trade
• Can also declare war
and “raise and
support armies”
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Branches of GovernmentExecutive
Branch
Article II established the
Executive Branch
Headed by the president to
carry out the nations laws and
policies
Commander in chief of the
armed forces
Conducts relations with other
countries
President and Vice President
are chosen by the Electoral
College
Each state’s voters select
electors to cast their votes for
the president and vice president
Each state gets the same
number of electors as it has
senators and representatives in
Congress
President and Vice President
serve a four year term
Branches of Government- Judicial
Branch
• Article III deals with the
judicial branch (court
system)
• The nations judicial
power resides in “one
Supreme Court”
• And any other lower
courts the Congress
might establish
• The Supreme Court and
the federal courts hear
cases involving the
Constitution, laws passed
by Congress, and
disputes between states
Under which branch of government
are laws made?
A. The legislative branch
B. The executive branch
C. The judicial branch
0%
A
A. A
B. B
C.0%C
B
0%
C
System of Checks and Balances
• The Framers built
in a system of
checks and
balances
• Each branch has
ways to check
(limit) the power of
the others
• No branch can
dominate the
government
• This system has
kept a balance of
power among the
branches and has
limited abuses
National Citizens
• The Constitution created citizens who choose
their officials
• Officials answer to the people
• The new government pledged to protect the
personal freedoms of the citizens
• The world watched to see if this experiment in
self-government would really work
Debate and Adoption
• 9 of the 13 states had to ratify
the Constitution
• Supporters of the Constitution
were called FederalistsIncluded George Washington
and Benjamin Franklin
• Madison, Hamilton, and Jay
wrote essays called the
Federalist Papers
• People opposes were called
Antifederalists- Also wrote
essays called the Antifederalist
Papers
• Antifederalists argued that the
strong national government
created by the Constitution
would take away American
liberties
• Antifederaists favored local
government
Protecting Rights
• The biggest criticism
about the Constitution
was that it lacked a Bill
of Rights
• Many states refused to
ratify with out a Bill of
Rights
• Federalists feared
disorder without a
strong central
government
• Antifederalists worried
about oppression that
might result from a
strong central
government
Adopting the Constitution
• New Hampshire became
the 9th state to approve on
June 21, 1788
• The new government could
go into effect, but New York
and Virginia had not ratified
• Virginia ratified after being
assured a Bill of Rights
would be added
• The Bill of Rights was
added in 1791
• The final three states (NY,
NC, and RI) approved the
Constitution by May 1790
What ideas and features are found in the
United States Constitution?
Ideas- Enlightenment ideas about natural rights
limiting government power, separation of power
Features- the Constitution shares power
between a central government and state
governments; establishes branches that make
laws, carry out laws, and interprets laws; is the
supreme law of the land, protects individual
rights
Chapter 7 Section 3 Quiz
Those who opposed the Constitution
feared the national government would
A. take rights away
from people.
B. limit the number
of new states.
C. limit trade.
D. require religion to
be practiced.
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The belief that all people have a right to life,
liberty, and property was promoted by
philosopher
A. Baron de
25% 25% 25% 25%
Montesquieu.
B. John Adams.
C. John Locke.
D. Benjamin
Franklin.
Which was the last state to ratify
the Constitution?
Rhode Island
New York
Maryland
North Carolina
a
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B.
C.
D.
The branch of the government that is
headed by the president is called the
legislative branch.
judicial branch.
executive branch.
constitutional
branch.
h.
.
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le
A.
B.
C.
D.
The branch of the government that deals
with the court system is called the
legislative branch.
judicial branch.
executive branch.
constitutional
branch.
h.
.
br
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A.
B.
C.
D.
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