QUESTION Do you believe in science? WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY? Study of Society - What is a Society? - How is it constructed, maintained and changed? Study of Human Social Activity - How do people behave? - What ”external” (non-cognitive) explanations can we find for this behaviour? FAMOUS EARLY SOCIOLOGIST OBJECTS OF STUDY SOCIOLOGICAL BRANCHES A SOCIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION Macro (structural functionalism): Biology as a model. Institution X is a function for society as a whole (society = organism) Ex. Family’s are a function to transfer our norms to the next generation Love is a function to maintain families Micro: Ex. Humans have a tendency to fall in love with people with whom they share the same class/ethnicity/status because the share the same social life and behaviour and are exposed to each other with in their limited sphere MODERN DEVELOPMENTS Culture studies Gender studies Post modernism Post structuralism Critical realism Environmental sociology RELATIVISM & REFLEXION Sociology teach us that what we regard as natural, unavoidable, god or true are results of historical and social powers and contexts To know way we regard something as a fact we need to look in to the context that supports the truth. THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT No science AND society – only science IN society No science AND agency – only science AS agency TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY SOCIOLOGY OF SCIENCE Science as: - A Culture - System of norms - Discourse - Society - Community - Agency - Religion - Capitalism THE STRONG PROGRAM As formulated by David Bloor in Knowledge and Social Imagery (1976), the strong programme has four indispensable components: Causality: it examines the conditions (psychological, social, and cultural) that bring about claims to a certain kind of knowledge. Impartiality: it examines successful as well as unsuccessful knowledge claims. Symmetry: the same types of explanations are used for successful and unsuccessful knowledge claims alike. Reflexivity: it must be applicable to sociology itself. ETHNOMETODOLOGY – WHAT DO SCIENTIST DO WHEN THE DO SCIENCE? Woolgar & Latour - Laboratory Life The talk, write, send papers, argue, presents, defend, drinks coffee, Agency to the artefacts Computer says no INSCRIPTIONS = DATA = AGENCY TO MACHINES WHAT ”FUNCTION” DOES METHOD HAVE FOR SCIENCE? Comparability Communication It's the details that sell your story! THE SCIENTIFIC DISCOURSE - 0ut-there-ness - Neutrality - Modality - Credibility CONSTRUCTING FACTS Facts are Scientific optimism Brought in Placed out Reflexive construtivism Scientific Community SCIENTIFIC STATEMENTS I belive X Professor Z claims X Results from test show that X X is a fact SOCIOLOGY OF TRANSLATIONS 1. Problematisation What is the problem that needs to be solved? Who are the relevant actors? Delegates need to be identified that will represent groups of actors. During problematisation, the primary actor tries to establish itself as an obligatory passage point (OPP) between the other actors and the network, so that it becomes indispensable. 2. Interessement Getting the actors interested and negotiating the terms of their involvement. The primary actor works to convince the other actors that the roles it has defined for them are acceptable. 3. Enrollment Actors accept the roles that have been defined for them during interessement. 4. Mobilization of allies Do the delegate actors in the network adequately represent the masses? If so, enrollment becomes active support. WHY MESS THINGS UP? How does experts learn? How to argue for science? How do you construct good solid facts? There is no where to run! QUESTION: Do you BELIVE in science?