3.1.2 – Training Learning objectives To understand the different methods of training and their effects. To describe the advantages and disadvantages of each method of training. Training There are many training methods a performer could use. Each method works the body differently. The aim of training is to improve: • Fitness • Skills •Techniques Methods of Training Weight Training WEIGHT TRAINING is a form of training that uses progressive resistance against a muscle group. How can weight training benefit a performer? 1. Increase muscular strength 2. Increase muscular endurance 3. Recover after injury. Weight Training Weight training can increase: Muscular strength: High weight x low repetitions Muscular endurance: Low weight x high repetitions Rest and recovery time will depend on: -Athlete’s fitness -Athlete’s weight -Sets completed 2 days is the average recovery period to mend damaged muscle fibres. Weight Training Pyramid sets: performer starts of light with more reps and works up to heavy weight and few reps. Weight Training There are 2 ways you can train: Machine Weights Free Weights Weight Training Machine Weights Free Weights Positives: -Safe to use -Technically design to work specific muscle groups. -Always ready to use Positives: -Provides a wider range of movement. -can develop explosive strength (many top performer use free weights) Drawbacks: -Extra weight cannot be added. Drawbacks: -Need a spotter for safety reasons. -Injury is more likely to occur if posture is not right Circuit Training Circuit training is a series of exercises completed one after another. It is a very good way of developing general fitness. Circuit training can help to improve •MUSCULAR ENDURANCE •CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS Circuits can be made specific by using skills from your chosen sport. i.e. basketball Stations could include: - Dribbling - Shooting - 1 vs 1 - Defending - Free throws What factors should you consider about the order of the activities and why? How can the intensity be increased? i.e. make it harder Interval Training This training involves periods of work followed by periods of rest. i.e. Sprint for 20 metre + walk back to start. What athletes/performers would benefit from this method of training? Interval Training Lactic acid and oxygen debt builds up during interval training. The rest phase allows for recovery of these levels. What muscles group would this training help build? – think muscle types? What body system is working during this type of training? - Fast Twitch muscle fibres - Anaerobic – without air Example = 200m Interval Training Long Interval Training: Work time can range from 20 seconds to 3 minutes. Who might benefit from longer interval training? Used by games players and middle distance runners i.e. 400m X 5 with 2 minutes rest in between each set Interval Training Short Interval Training: Work time will be no longer than 20 seconds. Who might benefit from longer interval training? Used by sprinters and racket sport players due to short bursts needed. i.e. 50m X 7 with 2 minutes rest in between each set Fartlek Training Means ‘SPEED PLAY’. It is a combination of running, cycling speeds. i.e. 1 lap at 50% max, 1 lap walking, 1 lap at 80% Works on both aerobic and anaerobic fitness due to the varying intensities. What athletes may use this method of training? Fartlek Training - Used by team games performers as it suits the movements necessary for a game. - Can be completed over different terrains - woods / hills / roads to create a variety of intensities. Continuous Training Involves a steady but regular pace. i.e. Jogging. It is important to maintain heart rate in the training threshold (60-80% of Max). Activities can includes running, walking, swimming, rowing or cycling. Continuous Training What muscles group would this training help build? – think muscle types? What body system is working during this type of training? - Slow twitch muscle fibres - Aerobic – with air What particular athletes may use this method of training? Long distance events – Marathon EXAM QUESTION Write down 3 statements about each of the following methods of training. (a) Fartlek Training (b) Continuous Training (c) Cross Training Put the following statements under either one of the headings. Free Weights c) Not for beginners: d) Easy to work: e) Builds up strength: f) Limit to the amount of weight lifted: g) Injury due to poor technique: h) Seats and belts make them safe: i) Can help after injury: j) Move only in the designed way: k) Needs a spotter: l) Use on your own: m) Top sportspeople use them: n) Uses anaerobic and aerobic respiration: o) Easier to apply more weight: p) Always set up and ready to use Machine Weights Summary Questions: 1. What is Fartlek training? 2. What is the difference between free weights and machine weights? 3. Describe interval training? 4. Circuit training can be made specific to a sport. What stations might you include in a basketball circuit?