Learning Styles
Richard Felder
Adapting our training for
student learning styles
Linda Silverman
How do we turn
information into learning?





What types of information do we perceive?
How do we take it in?
How do we like our information organised?
How do we process it?
How do we gain understanding?
Preferred Learning Styles
Aspect of Learning Learning Styles
Perception
Sensory
Intuitive
(concrete)
(abstract)
Input
Visual
Verbal
Organisation
Inductive
Deductive
Processing
Active
Reflective
Understanding
Sequential
Global
Preferred Learning Styles
Aspect of Learning Learning Styles
Perception
Sensory
Intuitive
(concrete)
(abstract)
Input
Visual
Verbal
Organisation
Inductive
Deductive
Processing
Active
Reflective
Understanding
Sequential
Global
Perception of Information
Sensory
Intuitive
Concrete
Abstract
Sights, sounds
Speculation,
imagination, insights
Facts, data, experiments Principles, theories,
symbols, concepts,
relationships
Sensors & Intuitors

Same as in Myer-Briggs Type Indicators

See
www.humanmetrics.com
Daydreaming?
Daydreaming?
Daydreaming?
Daydreaming?
Teaching sensors & intuitors

Blend concrete information


facts, data, observable phenomena
and abstract information

principles, theories, mathematical models
Visual and Verbal Input
Visual
Verbal
Sights
Pictures
Charts
Symbols
Sounds
Words
Discussions
Tone of voice
Stories
Graphs Colours
Remember what they
see, especially if they
draw it
Remember what they
hear, especially if they
explain it to others
Visual and Verbal Input


The written word (notes or PowerPoint)
is not visual but verbal
Our brain translates the writing
into words
Visual learner
Teaching visual and verbal

Visual – not just text


Verbal - Be expressive


Pictures, diagrams, colour, demonstrations,
animation, tables, graphs, graphic design
Strong words, intonation, varied
loudness and rhythm, stories
Use multisensory

Use all senses including kinesthetic
Preferred Learning Styles
Aspect of Learning Learning Styles
Perception
Sensory
Intuitive
(concrete)
(abstract)
Input
Visual
Verbal
Organisation
Inductive
Deductive
Processing
Active
Reflective
Understanding
Sequential
Global
Inductive & Deductive Organisation
particulars
Inductive
Deductive
generalities


Infer principles
Natural learning style


Deduce consequences
“Natural” teaching style
Inductive-Deductive
Facts, observations, events
Interpret
Inductive
So what? Generalise
Deductive
Now what? Apply
Inductive-Deductive
Known
(facts, real)
Unknown
(principles)
Constructivism
Teaching inductive &
deductive learners

Start with observations or problem
Infer governing rules, principles, equations
Deduce other implications or consequences

Exercises


Give phenomenon/observations
 Ask for underlying principles
 Apply theory

Active and Reflective Learners
Perceived information is converted to
knowledge by:
Active
Experimentation
 Do something with it
 Discuss it, explain it
 Test it - experiment
Reflective
Observation
 Introspective
 Postulate
explanations
 Draw analogies
 Formulate models
Teaching active and
reflective learners

Active


Reflective


Include pauses
Do both


“What will the students be doing?”
eg small discussion groups with report back
Reflective is not passive!
Active and passive teaching


Active and reflective learners both need to
do something – external or internal
Passive teaching
(eg lectures – watch and listen)
suits neither!
Preferred Learning Styles
Aspect of Learning Learning Styles
Perception
Sensory
Intuitive
(concrete)
(abstract)
Input
Visual
Verbal
Organisation
Inductive
Deductive
Processing
Active
Reflective
Understanding
Sequential
Global
Sequential & Global Understanding
Sequential
 Trees
 Learn progressively
 Linear reasoning
 Convergent thinking
 Analysis
Global
 Forest
 “fits and starts”
 Intuitive leaps
 Divergent thinking
 Synthesis
Sequential & Global Understanding
Sequential
 Trees
 Learn progressively
 Linear reasoning
 Convergent thinking
 Analysis
Global
 Forest
 “fits and starts”
 Intuitive leaps
 Divergent thinking
 Synthesis
Homework
Sequential and Global Learning
Sequential and Global Learning
Sequential and Global Learning
Learning
Pass
mark
Exam
Time
Teaching sequential and
global learners

Sequential


Already well catered for
Global




Start with context and “big picture”
Introduce advanced concepts early
Encourage creative solutions
Make them aware of their different
learning style
Preferred Learning Styles
Aspect of
Learning
Perception
Learning Styles
Sensory
Intuitive
(concrete)
(abstract)
Input
Visual
Verbal
Organisation
Inductive
Deductive
Processing
Active
Reflective
Understanding
Sequential
Global
Models of Learning & Teaching Styles
Learning Styles
Teaching Styles
Perception
Sensory
Intuitive
Content
Concrete
Abstract
Input
Visual
Verbal
Presentation Visual
Verbal
Organisation Inductive
Deductive
Organisation Inductive
Deductive
Processing
Student
Active
participation Passive
Active
Reflective
Understand- Sequential
ing
Global
Perspective
Sequential
Global
Most Students Most Teachers
Learning Styles
Perception
Sensory
Intuitive
Input
Visual
Verbal
Organisation Inductive
Deductive
Processing
*
*
*
*
*
Active
Reflective
Understand- Sequential
ing
Global
Teaching Styles
Content
Concrete
Abstract
Presentation Visual
Verbal
Organisation Inductive
Deductive
Student
Active
participation Passive
Perspective
Sequential
Global
Most Students Most Teachers
Learning Styles
Perception
Sensory
Intuitive
Input
Visual
Verbal
Organisation Inductive
Deductive
Processing
Teaching Styles
*
*
*
*
*
Active
Reflective
Understand- Sequential
ing
Global
Content
Concrete
Abstract
Presentation Visual
V erbal
Organisation Inductive
Deductive
Student
Active
participation Passive
Perspective
Sequential
Global
Most Teaching
Online Questionnaire
www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html
So is all lost?
No!
Teaching for all Learning Styles
Motivate learning, provide context
 Relate to previous material, what is
to come, other subjects, student’s
experience
Inductive/global
Teaching for all Learning Styles
Balance concrete & abstract
 Facts, data, experiments
Sensing
 Principles, theories, mathematical
models
Intuitive
Teaching for all Learning Styles
Balance practical & understanding
 Practical problem solving
Sensing/active
 Fundamental understandings
Intuitive
Teaching for all Learning Styles
Encourage reflection
 Do not fill every minute of class time
Reflective
Teaching for all Learning Styles
Engage students
 Provide opportunities for activities,
other than note taking
Active
Teaching for all Learning Styles
Balance detail and open-ended
 Provide practice in the basics
Sensing/active/sequential
 Provide open-ended problems that
need analysis and synthesis
Intuitive/reflective/global
Teaching for all Learning Styles
Encourage cooperation
 Give the option for students to work
together on assignments
Active
Teaching for all Learning Styles
Encourage failure
 Applaud creative solutions, even if
they are wrong
Intuitive/global
Teaching for all Learning Styles
Self-awareness
 Talk to students about their learning
styles
All
Download

Learning Styles - Felder model