Enlightenment and the American Revolution World History ESSENTIAL QUESTION: Philosophes Apply the Scientific Revolution to Society to solve problems: 1700-1800s Focused on Individualism, Freedom, & Change Apply “reason” to human nature Combined LOGIC and REASON Weaken church and absolute powers Philosophes Apply the Scientific Revolution in: 1700-1800s Challenge absolutism and divine rule Question the government Solve human problems Use science and reason to… Denis Diderot ENCYCLOPEDIA Put together a collection of Teach to think critically & Salons question the writings of the major philosophes Essential Question Philosophe, Thomas Hobbes Humans are naturally selfish & fearless Life in nature is nasty, brutish, & short Need an absolute monarchy to keep the social contract, impose order, & manage corrupt behavior Social contract = exchange of freedom for protect & security from the government Philosophe, john locke People are born with “unalienable rights” LIFE LIBERTY PROPERTY Philosophe, john locke • Rulers are NOT absolute in power and must remain bound to laws of reason and nature • Should protect people’s natural rights • Humans have free will • Idea of divine right and kings is NONSENSE!!! • Citizens have the right to overthrow the ruler if the ruler does not represent the people • Sovereignty Ideas of modern democracy Philosophe, Baron de Montesquieu Montesquieu Baron de It’s NATURAL for rulers with ABSOLUTE POWER to use power in corrupt manner… therefore… we must… Philosophe, Baron de Montesquieu …spread power evenly over three branches of government – ensures freedom, liberty, no corruption… SEPARATION OF POWERS (Checks & Balances) a. Legislative – Made laws (Congress) b. Executive – Administered laws (Pres.) c. Judicial – Interpreted and applied laws (Supreme & Federal Courts.) Philosophe, jean jacques rousseau believed that people are… born good corrupted by bad laws corrupted by the environment corrupted by bad government Philosophe, jean jacques rousseau • He believed the best government used POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY or a vote by all of the people • “General Will” OR Common Good • A Social Contract is necessary. MAJORITY RULES Philosophe, Voltaire • Used public opinion to fight injustice “I do not agree with a word you say, but I will fight to the death for your right to say it.” Believed the perfect government needed freedom of speech and of religion. Assignment applying Enlightenment Thinkers Create an Encyclopedia Cover, authored by Diderot using each last name as a piece of “word art” to symbolize each philosophe’s belief of human nature & government: * Voltaire *Hobbes *Locke *Montesquieu *Rousseau … Or Write a Poem titled: “Ode to Reason” reflecting the human nature & government expressions of: * Diderot *Voltaire *Hobbes *Locke *Montisquieu *Rousseau Enlightenment Ideas Spread 1775-1783 The right to unalienable rights and the right to representation Enlightenment Ideas Spread 1775-1783: Background • Background • Opportunity in colonies=cheap, land, social advancements, new identity • British needed to pay for the French and Indian War (Britain v. France over power in North America and Caribbean) =taxed colonies Causes of the American Revolution “Great upheavals in history occur when circumstances are ripe.” French and Indian War (1754-63) Drained Britain treasury Passed and enforced new tax laws on the colonists Causes of the American Revolution “Great upheavals in history occur when circumstances are ripe.” New tax laws on the colonists “No taxation without representati on” OH NO!!! … You tell me Assignment Causes of the American Revolution Mission: • Analyze the political cartoon “Causes of the American Revolution” • Identify the symbols that outline the causes of the war • Use your textbook (pages 182-184) to create a detailed timeline explaining the causes of the American Revolution Major Topics: • French and Indian War 1754-1763 • Trade Laws 1764 • Stamp Act 1765 • Townshend Act 1767 • Boston Massacre 1770 • Boston Tea Party 1773 • Intolerable Act 1774 Causes of the American Revolution: 1. French and Indian War 2. Taxes on Colonies 1. Stamp Act 1767: Stamps on newspapers, public documents, legal papers (help pay war debt) 2. Townsend Act 1767: Tax on glass, paints, tea 1. Boston Massacre 1770: Merchants in Boston called for a boycott of British goods=British sent troops to keep order=shots fired, kill 5 people=repealed most taxes except that on TEA Causes of the American 2. British treasury is Revolution 1. Mercantilism drained during the French and Indian War Causes of the American Revolution 3. Trade Laws 1764 4. Stamp Act 1765 The Townshend Act 1767 Boston Massacre 1770 Causes of the American Revolution Boston Tea Party 1773 Intolerable Act 1774 Causes of the American Revolution: 3. Colonists React to British *Public Assembly: led to Boston Massacre *Civil Disobedience: Sons of Liberty (Samuel Adams & Paul Revere) protest by dumping tea into harbor=Boston Tea Party 1773 *Representation: 1st Continental Congress 1774 (Philadelphia), list of grievances NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENATION Causes of the American Revolution: 4. British Counters Opposition: *Intolerable Acts -limited rights of colonists even more after Boston Tea Party (Boston port closed, British troops can’t be punished, British Governor in charge, no rights!) *Lexington and Concord 1775=British troops leave Boston in search for hidden weapons, meet militiamen in Lexington and Concord 5. Declaration of Independence: *2nd Continental Congress 1776: July 4, 1776 *Thomas Jefferson wrote using Locke and Rousseau and English Bill of Rights Causes of the American Revolution: Review French & Indian War: Britain Needs $ Blame Colonies for Cost SO…. TAX THE COLONIES ↓ Stamp Act & Townsend Act ↓ Boston Massacre ↓ Boston Tea Party ↓ Intolerable Act ↓ REVOLT (build up weapons Britain send more troops) “Great upheavals in history occur when circumstances are ripe.” Lexington and Concord 1775= Shots World: Heard Around the Critical Thinking Why were the first shots of the American revolution considered the “Shots heard around the world?” Write a critical response using your current knowledge. THINK!!!! Declaring Independence THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE • 2nd Continental Congress 1776: July 4, 1776 • Thomas Jefferson wrote using Enlightenment thought It’s a brave new world in America! Out with monarchy and in with democracy! Rights of individuals! Government must answer to the people! Declaration of Independence • Drafted by Thomas Jefferson • People had the right to “alter or abolish unjust governments.” • Popular sovereignty • All government power comes from the people • King had trampled the peoples’ natural rights. • Colonists now had the right to rebel Application Activity: As we have alluded to the Enlightenment ideas of democracy impacted the American revolution and the founding of our nation. It is now your job to make the proper connections. 1. Work with a partner near you. 2. Read the excerpts from the Declaration of Independence 3. Highlight, Define, Visualize, Clarify, Predict 4. Write the ideas in everyday words make it simple to understand 5. Match the proper Enlightenment philosophe(s) with the idea(s) expressed in the excerpt Articles of Confederation 1781 • Created National Government with little power because they didn’t want to create a mini-me Britain • Could not tax • Could not navigate with foreign nations • It failed…SO United States Constitution 1789 The Constitution – page 186-187 • Used ideas of Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau and Voltaire • Created a Representative Democracy (REPUBLIC) • Government in which power is divided between the national (or federal government) and the states • Separation of powers (3 branches) • Citizens VOTE • Bill of Rights added later: Amendments 1-10 Federalist Papers – Writing campaign to convince American citizens to ratify the new Constitution First President: George Washington.