Learning Styles
Learning styles

The different ways in which individuals
learn

Preferred and consistent sets of
behaviors and approaches to learning
Processes of learning
1.
Cognition
Acquire knowledge
2.
Conceptualization
Process information
make connections
3.
Affective
Motivation
Decision-making style
Values, emotional preferences
Students have…
Different levels of motivation
 Different attitudes about teachng and
learning
 Different responses to learning
environments and instructional methods

Diversity reflected in teaching
and learning
1.
Learning styles
Taking in and processing information
2.
Approaches to learning
Surface, deep, strategic
3.
Intellectual development levels
Attitudes about knowledge
How it is acquired, evaluated
Instruction is most effective
if it is designed to address a
broad spectrum of learning styles.
Some theories of learning styles….
Kolb’s Theory of Learning
Styles
Concrete experience
Abstract
conceptualization
Reflective observation
Active experimentation
Kolb’s Theory of Learning Styles

Concrete experience

Labs
Field work
Observations
Films, tapes

Reflective observation
Logs
Journals
Brainstorm

Abstract
conceptualization
Lectures
Papers
Analogies
Active experimentation
Simulations
Case studies
Independent work
Approach to task
Doing
Processing continuum
Perception continuum
Feeling
Watching
Kolb
Thinking
Learning style types
Activist
Doing
Processing continuum
Pragmatist
Perception continuum
Feeling
Reflector
Watching
Theorist
Kolb
Thinking
Activist (Description)
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Hands-on
Intuition (rather than logic)
Practical
Experiential approach
Reflector
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Looks from different perspectives
Sensitive
Watcher
Gathers information
Uses it to solve problems
Theorist
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Concise
Logical approach
Ideas and concepts important
Requires clear explanation
Pragmatist
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Solve problems
Use learning to apply to solutions
Practical issues
Technical tasks
Less concerned with people and
interpersonal aspects
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
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Extraverts
Sensors
Thinkers
Judgers
Extraverts
Try things out, focus on the outer world
Introverts
Think things through, focus on the inner
world of ideas
Sensors
Practical, detail-oriented,
focus on facts and procedures
Intuitors
Imaginative, concept-oriented,
focus on meanings and possibilities
Thinkers
Sceptical,
make decisions based on logic and rules
Feelers
Appreciative,
decisions based on personal and humanistic considerations
Judgers
Set and follow agendas, seek closure
even with incomplete data
Perceivers
Adapt to changing circumstances,
postpone reaching closure to obtain more
data
Felder and Silverman Model
1. Sensory/intuitive
What type of information does the
student preferentially
perceive?
Concrete,practical: abstractions
2. What type of sensory
information is most
effectively perceived?
Visual: verbal
3. How does the student prefer to
process information?
Actively: reflectively
4. How does the student progress
toward understanding
Sequentially: globally
How Medical Students learn
R Hilliard 1995
Learning approaches correlated with…
motives to “do well”
study methods
academic performance
Study methods were determined by the
assessment methods
Sum Up
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Everyone has an individual learning style
It would be impossible to design instruction for
all learning styles
Designing learning experiences to appeal to
several learning styles is helpful
Students can accommodate their learning to the
teaching styles they experience
Felder & Silverman look at how students work
with information.
Learning Style Indicator
What kind of learner
are you?