Chapter Preview · Section 3 Norms and Values (pages 81–91) The essential components of culture are norms, values, beliefs, and material objects. Sanctions are used to encourage conformity to norms. Values, the broadest cultural ideas, form the basis for norms. In your opinion, which of the following values most closely identifies with American culture? A. Belief in God B. Achievement and success C. Democracy D. Equality 0% A A. B. 0% C. BD. A B 0% C C D 0% D Norms: The Rules We Live By • Norms are rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Norms are so engrained in humans that they guide behavior without awareness. Cultural Etiquette Which of the following is a norm that affects behavior in the classroom? A. Showing respect B. Completing classwork C. Sitting still D. All of the above 0% A A. B. 0% C. BD. A B 0% C C D 0% D Folkways, Mores, and Laws • There are three types of norms: – Folkways—rules that cover customary ways of thinking, feeling and behaving but lack moral overtones. – Mores—norms of great moral significance. – Taboo—a norm so strong that its violation demands punishment by the group. Patterns of Tourism Folkways, Mores, and Laws (cont.) • Laws are norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials. Silly Laws Still on the Books Which of the following do you think has the most influence on our laws? A. Mores B. Folkways C. Taboos 0% A A. A B. B C.0%C B 0% C Enforcing the Rules • Sanctions are rewards and punishments used to encourage conformity to norms, either formally or informally. • Formal sanctions are sanctions that may be applied, for positive or negative reasons, only by officially designated persons, such as judges and teachers. Enforcing the Rules (cont.) • Informal sanctions can be applied by most members of a group, also for positive or negative reasons. Is earning the Congressional Medal of Honor a formal or informal sanction? A. Informal B. Formal C. Not sure 0% A A. A B. B C.0%C B 0% C Values—The Basis for Norms • Values are broad ideas about what most people in a society consider to be desirable. • Different groups in the same society can have different norms based on the same value. Values—The Basis for Norms (cont.) • Values have a tremendous influence on human social behavior because they form the basis for norms. The Norm Kite The Norm Kite Basic Values in the United States • According to sociologist Robin Williams (1970), some of the important values that guide the values of most people in the United States are as follows: – Achievement and success – Activity and work – Efficiency and practicality – Equality – Democracy – Group superiority Basic Values in the United States (cont.) • Although many of these values have remained the same over the years, some have changed. Which of Williams’s values do you feel is the least influential in American society? A. Achievement and success B. Activity and work C. Efficiency and practicality 0% D A B C0% D C A 0% A. B. C. 0% D. B D. Equality • norms • informal sanctions • folkways • values • mores • taboo • law • sanctions • formal sanctions The Norm Kite Cultural Universals Immigration to the United States Source: Bureau of U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services: 2004 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics. Patterns of Tourism Adapted from the Student Atlas: DK Publishing, Inc. Sociology Chapter Transparencies Top Ten Languages by Population Top Languages by Distribution New Words in English norms rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior folkways norms that lack moral significance mores norms that have moral dimensions and that should be followed by members of the society taboo a rule of behavior, the violation of which calls for strong punishment law a norm that is formally defined and enforced by officials sanctions rewards and punishments used to encourage people to follow norms formal sanctions sanctions imposed be persons given special authority informal sanctions rewards or punishments that can be applied by most members of a group values broad ideas about what is good or desirable shared by people in a society To use this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Transparency button to access the transparencies that are relevant to this chapter. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the Sociology Online button to access online textbook features. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as the Figures, Time Lines, Snapshot of America, World View and others are located at the bottom of relevant screens.