Chapter Preview · Section 3
Norms and Values (pages 81–91)
The essential components of culture
are norms, values, beliefs, and
material objects. Sanctions are used to
encourage conformity to norms.
Values, the broadest cultural ideas,
form the basis for norms.
In your opinion, which of the
following values most closely
identifies with American culture?
A. Belief in God
B. Achievement and success
C. Democracy
D. Equality
0%
A
A.
B.
0%
C.
BD.
A
B
0%
C
C
D
0%
D
Norms: The Rules We Live By
• Norms are rules defining appropriate and
inappropriate behavior. Norms are so
engrained in humans that they guide
behavior without awareness.
Cultural Etiquette
Which of the following is a norm that
affects behavior in the classroom?
A. Showing respect
B. Completing classwork
C. Sitting still
D. All of the above
0%
A
A.
B.
0%
C.
BD.
A
B
0%
C
C
D
0%
D
Folkways, Mores, and Laws
• There are three types of norms:
– Folkways—rules that cover customary
ways of thinking, feeling and behaving but
lack moral overtones.
– Mores—norms of great moral significance.
– Taboo—a norm so strong that its violation
demands punishment by the group.
Patterns of Tourism
Folkways, Mores, and Laws (cont.)
• Laws are norms that are formally defined
and enforced by officials.
Silly Laws Still on
the Books
Which of the following do you think
has the most influence on our laws?
A. Mores
B. Folkways
C. Taboos
0%
A
A. A
B. B
C.0%C
B
0%
C
Enforcing the Rules
• Sanctions are rewards and punishments
used to encourage conformity to norms,
either formally or informally.
• Formal sanctions are sanctions that may
be applied, for positive or negative
reasons, only by officially designated
persons, such as judges and teachers.
Enforcing the Rules (cont.)
• Informal sanctions can be applied by
most members of a group, also for positive
or negative reasons.
Is earning the Congressional Medal of
Honor a formal or informal sanction?
A. Informal
B. Formal
C. Not sure
0%
A
A. A
B. B
C.0%C
B
0%
C
Values—The Basis for Norms
• Values are broad ideas about what most
people in a society consider to be
desirable.
• Different groups in the same society can
have different norms based on the same
value.
Values—The Basis for Norms (cont.)
• Values have a tremendous influence on
human social behavior because they form
the basis for norms.
The Norm Kite
The Norm Kite
Basic Values in the United States
• According to sociologist Robin Williams
(1970), some of the important values that
guide the values of most people in the United
States are as follows:
– Achievement and success
– Activity and work
– Efficiency and practicality
– Equality
– Democracy
– Group superiority
Basic Values in the United States (cont.)
• Although many of these values have
remained the same over the years, some
have changed.
Which of Williams’s values do you feel is
the least influential in American society?
A. Achievement and success
B. Activity and work
C. Efficiency and practicality
0%
D
A
B
C0%
D
C
A
0%
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
D. Equality
• norms
• informal sanctions
• folkways
• values
• mores
• taboo
• law
• sanctions
• formal sanctions
The Norm Kite
Cultural Universals
Immigration to the United States
Source: Bureau of U.S. Citizenship and Immigration
Services: 2004 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics.
Patterns of Tourism
Adapted from the Student Atlas: DK Publishing, Inc.
Sociology Chapter
Transparencies
Top Ten Languages by Population
Top Languages by Distribution
New Words in English
norms
rules defining appropriate and
inappropriate behavior
folkways
norms that lack moral significance
mores
norms that have moral dimensions and that
should be followed by members of the society
taboo
a rule of behavior, the violation of which
calls for strong punishment
law
a norm that is formally defined and
enforced by officials
sanctions
rewards and punishments used to
encourage people to follow norms
formal sanctions
sanctions imposed be persons given
special authority
informal sanctions
rewards or punishments that can be
applied by most members of a group
values
broad ideas about what is good or
desirable shared by people in a society
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Norms and Values - Freeman Public Schools