Global Studies I caliph a successor to Muhammad, or ruler of Islam jihad (“struggle in the way of God”) the Arabic custom of raiding one’s enemies vizier a prime minister who advised the caliph sultan (“holder of power”) the title of the Turkish leader who took command of the Arab Empire mosque a Muslim temple or house of worship Abu Bakr first caliph and father-in-law of Muhammad Mu’awiyah established the Umayyad dynasty Hussein led a revolt against the Umayyad dynasty in 680 Harun al-Rashid Abbasid caliph whose reign is called the golden age of the Abbasid caliphate Saladin Muslim ruler who ended the Crusades by destroying the Christian army in Jerusalem in 1187 656: 661: 732: 750: 762: Ali becomes caliph Mu’awiyah becomes caliph and est. the Ummayad dynasty Arab forces defeated @ the Battle of Tours; expansion into Europe stops Abu al-Abbas est. the Abbasid dynasty Abbasids build new capital @ Baghdad 1055: Seljuk Turks take control of Abbasid Empire 1096: Crusades begin 1169: Saladin takes control of Egypt 1187: Crusades end 1258: Golden age of the Abbasid caliphate Who became the first caliph? Abu-Bakr How did the Islamic movement grow under Abu Bakr? Through jihad – Muslim soldiers believed that dying in battle assured a place in paradise. (72 Virgins) How did Mu’awiyah establish the Umayyad dynasty? By making the caliphate hereditary What weaknesses in Arab rule led to revolts against the Umayyads? struggles for succession struggles between Arab and non-Arab Muslims struggles between the Shiite and Sunni Muslims What is the difference between Shiite and Sunni Muslims? Shiite – accept only the descendants of Ali as true caliphs Sunni – accept only the descendants of the Umayyads as true caliphs How was the Abbasid dynasty established? Abu al-Abbas overthrew the Ummayad and established the Abbasid dynasty. What changes did the Abbasid rulers bring to the world of Islam? all Muslims could hold civil and military offices Arabs began to inter-marry the conquered peoples new capital city at Baghdad prosperity How did the Seljuk Turks gradually replace the Abbasids? converted to Islam and prospered as soldiers for the Abbasids took over the eastern provinces of the Abbasid dynasty captured Baghdad and most of the Anatolian Peninsula Why did many other Europeans agree to help the Byzantine emperor in the fight against the Muslims? The Christian states and Islamic world feared and disliked each other. How did the Mongols seize control of the Arab empire in the thirteenth century? The Mongols were fierce nomads who created such terror that people would not fight back. They seized Persia and Mesopotamia, bringing the Abbasid caliphate to an end. What changes occurred with Mongol rulers over time? Mongol rulers converted to Islam. They rebuilt many of the cities that they had destroyed.