Global Studies I
 caliph
a successor to Muhammad, or ruler of Islam
 jihad
(“struggle in the way of God”) the Arabic
custom of raiding one’s enemies
 vizier
a prime minister who advised the caliph
 sultan
(“holder of power”) the title of the Turkish
leader who took command of the Arab
Empire
 mosque a Muslim temple or house of worship
 Abu Bakr
first caliph and father-in-law of Muhammad
 Mu’awiyah
established the Umayyad dynasty
 Hussein
led a revolt against the Umayyad dynasty
in 680
 Harun al-Rashid Abbasid caliph whose reign is called the
golden age of the Abbasid caliphate
 Saladin
Muslim ruler who ended the Crusades by
destroying the Christian army in Jerusalem in
1187
 656:
 661:
 732:
 750:
 762:
Ali becomes caliph
Mu’awiyah becomes caliph and est.
the Ummayad dynasty
Arab forces defeated @ the Battle of
Tours; expansion into Europe
stops
Abu al-Abbas est. the Abbasid
dynasty
Abbasids build new capital @
Baghdad
 1055:
Seljuk Turks take control of
Abbasid
Empire
 1096: Crusades begin
 1169: Saladin takes control of Egypt
 1187: Crusades end
 1258: Golden age of the Abbasid
caliphate
Who became the first caliph?
Abu-Bakr
How did the Islamic movement
grow under Abu Bakr?
Through jihad – Muslim soldiers
believed that dying in battle
assured a place in paradise.
(72 Virgins)
 How did Mu’awiyah establish the Umayyad dynasty?
 By making the caliphate hereditary
 What weaknesses in Arab rule led to revolts against the
Umayyads?
 struggles for succession
 struggles between Arab and non-Arab Muslims
 struggles between the Shiite and Sunni Muslims
 What is the difference between Shiite and Sunni
Muslims?
 Shiite – accept only the descendants of Ali as true
caliphs
 Sunni – accept only the descendants of the Umayyads
as true caliphs
 How was the Abbasid dynasty established?
 Abu al-Abbas overthrew the Ummayad and
established the Abbasid dynasty.
 What changes did the Abbasid rulers bring to the
world of Islam?
 all Muslims could hold civil and military offices
 Arabs began to inter-marry the conquered
peoples
 new capital city at Baghdad
 prosperity
How did the Seljuk Turks gradually
replace the Abbasids?
converted to Islam and prospered
as soldiers for the Abbasids
took over the eastern provinces of
the Abbasid dynasty
captured Baghdad and most of the
Anatolian Peninsula
Why did many other Europeans
agree to help the Byzantine
emperor in the fight against the
Muslims?
The Christian states and
Islamic world feared and
disliked each other.
 How did the Mongols seize control of the Arab
empire in the thirteenth century?
 The Mongols were fierce nomads who created
such terror that people would not fight back.
They seized Persia and Mesopotamia, bringing
the Abbasid caliphate to an end.
 What changes occurred with Mongol rulers over
time?
 Mongol rulers converted to Islam.
 They rebuilt many of the cities that they had
destroyed.
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Chapter 6-2: The Arab Empire and Its Successors