Brussels Briefing n° 26: New challenges and opportunities for pastoralism Is there a future for pastoralism? Jeremy Swift, Pastoral development specialist Brussels, 22nd February 2012 IS THERE A FUTURE FOR PASTORALISM? IS THERE A FUTURE FOR PASTORALISM? • Who are the nomadic pastoralists? • What have we learned about pastoralists? • How do we move the pastoral agenda forward? • Conclusion: is there a future for pastoralism? WHO ARE THE NOMADIC PASTORALISTS ? Pastoral nomads: • depend on livestock • are mobile • use community managed grasslands • recognise customary rules and norms as a source of authority WHO ARE THE NOMADIC PASTORALISTS ? How many Pastoral nomads? Depends on definition Using the strict definition (all four criteria): – estimated at least 20 million pastoralists in Africa – perhaps 50 million in the world WHO ARE THE NOMADIC PASTORALISTS ? ‘Nomadistan’ Population of ‘Nomadistan’ compared to other countries Population (million) Australia 22.8 Ivory Coast 21.4 ‘Nomadistan’ 20 Angola 19.6 Netherlands 16.7 WHO ARE THE NOMADIC PASTORALISTS ? Where are they ? • Dry grasslands, steppes, tundra, mountain pastures • Europe, Middle East, Central Asia, Africa, South America WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED ABOUT PASTORALISTS ? • Nomadic pastoralism is not an evolutionary dead end • Pastoralism is a highly specialised livelihood system WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED ABOUT PASTORALISTS ? Mobility and land tenure - Collective management - Land grabs by farmers, the state, domestic and international corporations - National parks - Pastoralists fighting back through the courts WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED ABOUT PASTORALISTS ? • Pastoralists’ contribution to national and international economic activity is considerable but underreported • Consequence of undervaluation of pastoral contribution is under-investment in pastoral infrastructure WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED ABOUT PASTORALISTS ? Drought and risk : - Customary ways of managing drought now less effective - New ways to manage drought : o drought management planning o index insurance WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED ABOUT PASTORALISTS ? Pastoralists hitherto largely invisible in life and statistics Pastoralists now increasingly engage with outside world - starting to participate in elections - desire for education HOW DO WE MOVE THE PASTORAL AGENDA FORWARD ? 1. Recognise pastoralism is a productive and efficient use of resources 2. Make pastoralists visible in government statistics, especially in censuses, trade figures and public discourse 3. Protect pastoral land HOW DO WE MOVE THE PASTORAL AGENDA FORWARD ? 4. Measure contribution of pastoral production to national economy 5. Better representation in Parliament 6. Education CONCLUSION; IS THERE A FUTURE FOR PASTORALISM ? CONCLUSION; IS THERE A FUTURE FOR PASTORALISM ?