The students will analyze continuity
and change in Africa leading to the 21st
century.
colonialism- the
forced control of one
nation by another
nation


Reasons for Colonization
Africa has many raw
materials and
natural resources
not found in Europe
including:
 cotton
 rubber
 ivory
 minerals including
gold and
diamonds
Reasons for Colonization



New industries in
Europe needed
metals like copper
and tin.
African countries
were new markets
for European goods.
Europeans also used
Africa as a source of
cheap labor.

Triangular Trade
Ends


Africa is no longer
used for slave trade to
the Americas
Europe goes to Africa
for free labor and
resources
Great Britain


Great Britain and
France often fought
for control of parts
of Africa.
The British
controlled the gold
and ivory trade in
West Africa.

France





The French wanted to
spread their culture.
Established themselves
in northern Algeria and
West Africa.
Trade outposts were
built in West Africa for
the slave trade.
Most of the Frenchcontrolled land was
desert.
They traded palm oil
and timber.

Belgium



Belgium also
competed for African
land.
King Leopold II
purchased the Congo
River basin.
The amount of land
purchased was bigger
than Belgium itself.

Berlin Conference




European nations
attended this conference
in 1884.
African rulers DID
NOT.
In order to avoid wars
over territory, the
European nations
divided Africa amongst
themselves.
Europeans owned
almost all of Africa by
the end of the
conference.
Colonized Africa

Modern Africa

Problems with the
boundaries

Boundaries do not
represent different
ethinic groups and
religions

Nationalism

Nationalism is the
identification of a
ethnic group or
nationality with a
country or state.

Colonialism is dying


After WWII it
becomes to expensive
to keep colonies
Many countries are
having difficulties
putting them selves
back together

South Africa



Colonial conflict
between the British
and Dutch, German
and French Colonists.
British win and take
over in 1910
South Africa is run by
white South Africans
under British rule.

African National
Congress


Fight for the rights of
black
Established in 1912

Kenya






Europeans presence as
early as 1498
Became a colony in 1920
Blacks were denied a
voice politics 1944
In 1944 a few blacks
were allowed to run for
political office
In 1950’s, there was a
violent, seven year
uprising resulting in tens
of thousands of deaths.
Kenya finally becomes
independent in 1963