Struggling Adolescent Readers Sharon Eric Melissa David Research says . . . • One in four students in grades four through twelve was a struggling reader in 2005. • Fewer than one-third of public school 8th graders read at, or above grade level Characteristics of Struggling Adolescent Readers in Word Study May read single-syllable words May have difficulty decoding longer multisyllabic words. May lack knowledge of the ways in which sounds map to print. May have difficulty breaking words into syllables. Might not use word analysis strategies to break words into syllables. What to do for a Struggling Adolescent Reader in Word Study. • Break words into syllable types. • Use and read multisyllabic words by blending parts together. • Recognize irregular words • Teach meanings of common prefixes, suffixes, inflectional endings, and roots • Break words into word parts and combine word parts to create words Characteristics of Struggling Adolescent Readers in Fluency Read slowly May struggle with decoding May not pause at punctuation Often lacks voice or emotion while reading What to do for a Struggling Adolescent Reader in Fluency Repeated Readings Non-repetitive wide reading Passage preview with audio books Provide corrective feedback Use individual reading level Read aloud books Accessible texts on a lower level Characteristics of Struggling Adolescent Readers in Vocabulary Have limited exposure to new words. May not enjoy reading Does not select reading for independent activity. unable to comprehend consistently Lack experiences necessary to gain deep understanding of new words. have limited content-specific prior knowledge to support word learning. What to do for a Struggling Adolescent Reader in Vocabulary. Study synonyms Contextual Redefinition Teach structure of words – roots, affixes, derivation, and meaning Word Maps Group similar words to build a scaffold to new vocabulary. Use keywords and mnemonics Characteristics of Struggling Adolescent Readers in Comprehension May not be aware when understanding breaks down. Do not interact with text May lack subject-specific prior knowledge. Do not make connections between what they are learning and what they already know. May not use strategies to gain information from text. May fail to read with purpose or goals. What to do for a Struggling Adolescent Reader in Comprehension K-W-L Chart Think alouds during reading Anticipation guides Questioning the text. Do the views of the text align with the reader’s views? Directed reading activities: pre-reading, reading, and post reading activities (RAP) Audio books Characteristics of Struggling Adolescent Readers in Motivation May engage in reading as a passive process Often have low comprehension of text. If given the choice, prefer not to read. May not be interested in exploring topics or content through reading. What to do for a Struggling Adolescent Reader in Motivation • • • • • • Incorporate Technology Interactive smart board Nontraditional Text High-interest CNN Student News Time for Kids series 4 Essential Features of Intervention 1. Personalized and ongoing assessments 2. Substantial opportunities to read and write 3. Extensive and varied collection of reading materials 4. Expert teachers as instructors Remember . . . • Students are not “one size fits all.” • One strategy will not work for all students. • Each struggling reader has his/her own needs. Taylor, C. R. (n.d.). Engaging the struggling reader: Focusing on reading and success across the content areas. (2012). National Tacher Education Journal, 5(2), 51-58. Ivey, G. (2009). Intervening when older youth struggle with reading. In K.A. Hinkchman, & H.K. Sheridan-Thomas, (Eds.), Best practices in adolescent literacy instruction. New York, NY: The Guilford Press Boardman, A. G., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Wexler, J., Murray, C. S., & Kosanovich, M. (2008). Effective instruction for adolescent struggling readers: A practice brief. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction (Preferred citation posted on this article) Newman, C., Wexler, T., & Wexler, J. (n.d.). 10 ways to teach and support struggling adolescent readers. (2007). Kappa Delta Pi Record, 22-27.