GUN POWDER EMPIRES EXPAND
1300-1700
1300-1700
3 of the great empires of history emerged
 Why haven’t we heard of them??
 As these powerful societies expanded, what do you think
happened?
 Should they impose Islam on who they conquer?

THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
REGION
Turks in Anatolia saw themselves as warriors for Islam
(ghazis)
 Think back - After the Roman empire fell, what empire arose
here?


Byzantine Empire
What do you think happened?
 The Turks took over the Ottoman Empire
 What country do you think this is today?


TURKEY
RULERS

1. Osman – “Othman”
Founder
 Followers were called “Ottomans”


2. Mehmed II
Became “sultan” – one with power
 Used cannons and GUNPOWDER to conquer Constantinople


3. Suleyman the Lawgiver/Magnificent


Ottoman Empire reached its peak
Supported government reform
RELIGION

What religion did they follow in society and
government?


Islam!
Ottomans granted freedom of worship to other
religions (Christians, Jews)

Allowed them to follow their own laws and pratices
LAW

What did Suleyman give?

“The Lawgiver”
Created a law code to handle both criminal and civil
actions
 He also organized and simplified government, armies,
and taxes.

Found in the U.S.
Congress
ARTS

Suleyman contributed to many cultural achievements

Interested in poetry, history, mathematics, geography, etc.
Had the Mosque of Suleyman built
 Art and literature flourished under his rule

THE SAFAVID EMPIRE
GEOGRAPHY/BACKGROUND
Gunpowder Empire that ruled Persia between 16th-18th centuries
Nestled in between the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) & Mughal Empire
(India)
How do you think its central location promote its development?
Fueled by conquest & cultural diffusion
Present Day
Iran
RULERS

1. Isma’il

12 yr old who seized most of Iran
Shah- Persian title king
Battle of Chaldiron
 Shi’ism-official religion


2. Shah Abbas or Abbas the Great
Created Golden Age that drew from Persian, Ottoman, &
Arab cultures
 Created new capital Esfahan—considered most beautiful in
the world

RELIGION

Shi’a Islam—official under
Isma’il


Not tolerant of other religions
Shah Abbas Tolerant

Needed to encourage other
cultures to trade
LAW

Shah Abbas



Reformed government & military
Punished severely
Hired foreigners to fill positions in government
ARTS

City of Esfahan
Showcase for foreign & Safavid artisans
 Chinese & Persian collaboration


Carpet
Persian themes
 Italian Renaissance

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
GEOGRAPHY/BACKGROUND
Located in Pakistan, India,
and Bangladesh
 700s: small kingdoms created
by Muslim tribes

Descendants of Muslim Turks
and Afghans
 Leader was related to Timur
the Lame and Genghis Khan
 Called themselves the Mughals,
which means Mongols

FAMOUS RULERS

Babur – 1494
Inherited kingdom in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan at age 11
 Built an army, invaded India, and founded the Mughal
Empire


Akbar (Greatest One) – 1556







Babur’s grandson
Unified north India - cannons
Golden Age
Religious tolerance  cultural blending
Abolished religious taxes
Efficient bureaucracy and fair taxes
Land reforms
OTHER FAMOUS RULERS

Shah Jahan
Built Taj Mahal as tomb for wife
 Massive taxes led to suffering
 Civil war after death


Aurangzeb
Enforced strict Islamic law and ended tolerance
 Conflict among religious groups
 Famine and taxes
 Turned over Bombay to English in 1661

RELIGION
Mixed
religions
today
 Traditionally
Hindu
 Mughal rulers were Islam
 Akbar practiced religious tolerance
Married Hindu princesses and allowed them to
practice their religion in the palace
 Allowed people of different religions to work in
government positions
 Urdu


a new language developed because
of the mixture of Arabic, Persian, and Hindi
LAW
 Akbar’s



policies
Bureaucracy of officials
Officials from different ethnic/religious backgrounds
Tax policy = graduated income tax
Fair policy
 Percentage of peasants’ crops


Land policy
Bureaucrats received land grants that he took back after
they died
 Problem: officials were not devoted to caring for the land

ART
Illustrations – highly
detailed, colorful miniatures in
books (Safavid influence)
 Literature – flourished in the
form of poetry and epics
(revived early works)
 Architecture – Akbar period
combined massive structures
w/ intricate Hindu-themed
stonework


Cultural blending seen in
architecture (i.e. Taj Mahal)
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The Muslim world Expands