Teaching Inclusion Classes
 What are some suggestions you can
come up with for how to make inclusion
work in the classroom.
 Write down 5 in your notebook.
Feedback skills with one another
Variety of equipment with choice
Learn about the disabilities
Partner (disabled with non, higher skill with lower skilled)
Group responsibility for student with disability
Rule modifications for games
Teaching styles with some that allow for more individual attention (peer and
station work)
Multiple solutions to question posed by teacher, can answer at one’s own
ability level
Balance cooperative vs competitive activities
Effectively utilize aides to facilitate inclusion
Positive affective environment (Discuss the student/disability with the
remainder of the class)
Clear expectations and instructions
Activity matrix (task analysis) – can modify any portion of the task analysis.
 Remember, inclusion is designing a
regular PE lesson but making
adaptations for special needs students.
 These modifications will be listed under
the “differentiated instruction” portion of
the lesson plan.
CT Legislation
 According to the “PJ Law,” 80% of
special needs students must be
educated in an inclusion environment.
1. Modifications
 Remember to modify the rules and the
 Some students may be sensitive to
modifications in front of their peers, this
should be done on a case by case basis.
How can you overcome this?
 Intra-task variation
• Remember, we talked about modifying any part of a task
analysis to promote success.
2. Involve the class/student
 Ask students without disabilities how best to
incorporate a special needs student into class,
typically when the special needs is not present. The
students will often come up with solutions you
already know but this helps involve everyone and
increase ownership.
 If a special needs student is unable to contribute to
the group work, take the student aside and ask about
the situation to determine his or her perception. Find
solutions that address the student's answer and use
alternative ways to address his or her involvement.
3. Contact Theory
 Contact theory suggests that frequent, meaningful, and
pleasant interactions between individuals with differences
tend to produce changes in attitude (Sherrill, 2003). To be
successful, interactions between students must be planned
and implemented carefully such as picking teams in a
discreet and equitable manner, often before class begins.
The atmosphere should be cooperative rather than
competitive, and the teacher must model positive behavior.
Aka – don’t hide away your adapted students, plan & follow through.
 (Block, 1999) - Students without disabilities reported
increases in their self-concept, tolerance, self-worth, and
understanding of other people.
3. Contact Theory
 The flip side - Be vigilant for opposition or
hostility towards students with disabilities
from non-disabled students.
 Example:
Students may verbally oppose
students with disabilities being on their team.
 How might you handle this:
• Use more non-competitive activities
• Include an affective/participation rubric
• Assign that student as a peer helper
4. Behavior Management
 Transitional episodes – plan and forewarn of
changes within the class (e.g., team
selection, lining up, moving squads, etc.)
 Results showed there was less student
learning and more off-task behavior for
students with disabilities in inclusion
settings (Palaestra, 1999)
 First year teachers should avoid extensively
included classes if possible
Higher rates of burnout (Fejgin, 2005)
5. Prior Notification
 Prior to the first day of classes, inquire
about special needs students you may
have in class.
 Best
place to start is the special education
 Must wait until you have your roster.
6. Other ideas to improve inclusion?
 Any ideas we’ve missed?
 Peer tutoring – set up a program at the
start of the year
 Disability awareness – great time is at the
start of the school year
 In-services – get better by requesting leave
for other schools or workshops.
Obstacles to Inclusion
 Number of students in your classroom
 PE classes are often capped at 30 students per
class. If possible, lobby for counting each IEP
student as 2 or 3 towards that cap.
 (Brown et al., 1989) – Principle of "natural
proportions,” no more than 1-2 students with
disabilities in any one PE class.
 Time
 Conducting specialized assessments and lesson
planning takes just that – time.
Obstacles to Inclusion
 Functional exclusion
 Occurs when physical educators include a
student with a disability in class, but the student
does not meaningfully participate with his or her
 What are some examples:
• A student may be "allowed" to watch others, keep
score, clean the equipment room, inventory
equipment, play "catch" with a paraeducator, or
even help the teacher with a task.
Obstacles to Inclusion
 Changing
the Culture of Inclusion
• Inclusion cannot be accomplished solely through the
addition of a paraeducator, or the adaptation of
games, equipment, time, and/or organization (Rizzo
& Lavay, 2000).
 Watch the following video and create an
inclusion movement education lesson
on pathways (3rd grade). If you are
unsure what a movement education
lesson is, go to my website and click the
link for “K-12 teaching materials.”
 autism
news segment_0002.wmv
Possible Answers
 Intro:
 Walk along the lines (vary LM movement)
 Routine (warm-up stations, choice at each station)
 Focus
 Partners, noodle to bind them (written pathway, draw in advance) –
Q Ss
 Pac Man Tag
 Culminating
 Walk along the lines
 Follow the leader
 Pathways assessment

Topic 12 - Teaching Inclusion Classes