Unit 20
Grammar part
现在分词作
定语和宾语补足语
现在分词作定语和宾语补足语
1. Dustin Hoffman is famous for his role acting
as a woman.
2. Two days later, I received a letter offering me
the job.
3. At one time in a show, you can see the
audience laughing loudly.
4. For a moment I saw him thinking.
现在分词作定语时,一个单词应放在被修饰词的
前边;现在分词短语则必须置于其后。例如:
升起的太阳
the rising sun
令人惊讶的消息 the surprising news
下一学年
the coming school year
受苦的人民
放在桌子上的钱夹
站在树下的男孩
the suffering people
the wallet lying on the desk
the boy standing under the tree
现在分词作定语,意义上接近一个定语从句,
表示一个正在进行的动作或者表示一个主动的
动作。例如:
中国是一个发展中国家。
China is a developing country (= China is a country
which is developing. ).
要去徒步旅游的学生在这里签名。
Students wishing to go hiking should sign their names
here.
在候车室里我看见一个熟睡的女孩。
I saw a sleeping girl in the waiting room.
= I saw a girl who was sleeping in the waiting room.
正和校长谈话的那个人是汤姆的父亲。
The man talking with our headmaster is Tom’s father.
= The man who is talking with our headmaster is Tom’s
father.
注意现在分词与其它非谓语形式作定语的区别:
1) 现在分词作定语,表示一个主动的、正在进行的动
作。如:
正在做关于污染报告的教授来自哈佛大学。
The professor giving a speech about pollution now is from
Harvard University.
2) 现在分词的被动语态(being+过去分词)表示一个被动
的、正在进行的动作。例如:
正在建设的高速公路将直通新港码头。
The freeway being built now will lead to Xingang Seaport.
3) 及物动词的过去分词作定语,表示一个被动的、已
经完成的动作。 例如:
上学期建成的计算机中心很受学校学生的欢迎。
The computer center, built last term, is very popular
among the students in the school.
4) 不定式(to+动词原形)作定语表示一个将来要发生
的动作。如:
下一个要检查的病人正在外面等着。
The patient to be examined next is waiting outside.
现在分词的完成式“having+过去分词”不能作
定语,此时可以用一个定语从句代替。例如:
你了解昨天发生的事故吗?
Do you know anything about the accident having
happened yesterday? ( wrong )
Do you know anything about the accident that happened
yesterday? ( right )
赢得冠军的中国女子排球队于昨晚到达首都机场。
The Chinese Women Volleyball Team having won
the championship arrived at the Capital Airport
last night. ( wrong )
The Chinese Women Volleyball Team that had won
the championship arrived at the Capital Airport
last night. ( right )
二、现在分词作宾语补足语
感官动词see, watch, hear, feel, notice等后接现在
分词作宾语补足语,表示该动作正在进行。例如:
1.
I saw him running down the street. 我看见他沿着街跑。
I felt an ant climbing over my leg. 我感到一只蚂蚁正在我的
腿上爬。
Suddenly, I noticed her standing outside. 突然我注意到她正
站在外边。
2) have, leave, keep等使役动词后接现在分词
作宾语补足语,表示“使处于某种状态”。如:
1.
I would have him waiting for me at the gate of the park.
我要他在公园门口等我。
Sorry I kept you waiting a long time.
对不起,让您久等了。
They shut the door and left, leaving the fire burning.
他们关上门走开了,留下火在燃烧
3) 注意现在分词与其它非谓语形式作宾语补足
语的区别:
1.
1 用不定式作宾语补足语表示动作的全过程已经完成。如:
Just then he heard someone sing in the next room.
在那时,他听见有人在隔壁房间里唱歌。
Just then he heard someone singing in the next room.
在那时,他听见有人正在隔壁房间里唱歌。
——Do you hear someone knocking at the door?
你听见有人正在敲门吗?
——Yes, I did. I heard him knock three times.
是的,有人敲门。我听到他敲了三次门。
用过去分词作宾语补足语表示一个被动的
动作。如:
He had his clothes washed.
他让别人洗了衣服。
What made you so frightened?
是什么让你如此害怕?
Thank you!
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现在分词中定语、宾语和补足语的复习