An Inquiry Strategy
Socratic Seminar Vision
 Socrates
believed that enabling students to
think for themselves was more important than
filling their heads with “right answers”.
 Participants seek deeper understanding on
complex ideas through rigorously thoughtful
dialogue than by memorizing bits of
What are Socratic Seminars?
 Highly
motivated form of intellectual and
scholarly discourse
 Usually range from 30-50 minutes
 An
effective Socratic Seminar creates dialogue as
opposed to debate
Four Elements
 An
effective Socratic Seminar consists of four
interdependent elements:
 The
text being considered
 The questions raised
 The seminar leader, and
 The participants
The Text
 The
seminar text can be drawn from readings
in literature, history, science, math, health,
philosophy, current events, or from works of
art or music
 Texts are usually chosen for their richness in
ideas, issues, values, and their ability to
stimulate extended, thoughtful dialogue.
The Question
 An
opening questions has no right answer
 It leads participants back to the text as they
speculate, evaluate, define, and clarify the
issues involved
 Responses
to the opening question generate new
 The line of inquiry evolves on the spot
The Leader
Plays a dual role as leader and participant
 Leads thought exploration of the ideas in the text
 Actively engages in the group in the group’s
exploration of the text
Helps participants clarify their positions when
arguments become
Involves reluctant participants their more vocal peers
Must be patient enough to allow participants’
understandings to evolve
Must be willing to help participants explore
nontraditional insights and unexpected interpretation
The Participants
 Share
responsibility for the quality of the
 Most effective when participants:
 Study
the text closely
 Listen actively
 Share ideas and questions in response to others
 Search for evidence in the text to support their
 Time
to engage in in-depth discussions,
problem solving, and clarification of ideas
 Building a strong, collaborative work culture
 Enhanced knowledge and research base
 Increased success for all students
 Teaching respect for diverse ideas, people, and
 Creating a positive learning environment for
all students
Conducting a Fishbowl
 Strategy
to use when you have a LARGE class
(over 25 students)
 Divide the class into “Inner” and “Outer”
Circle – active participants
 Outer Circle- students observe 2-3 active
participants for:
 Inner
 New
ideas, question asked, positive comments, negative
behavior, referred to text, side conversations
Observer Write-Up
 What
was the most interesting question?
 What was the most interesting idea to come
from a participant?
 What was the best thing you observed?
 What was the most troubling thing you
 What do you should be done differently in the
next seminar?
 What do you wish you had said?
Tips for Teachers
the seminar:
the text CAREFULLY (provocative
questions, short passages, identify tough
Choose an introductory question in advance
(broad, open-ended, productive
Review and post rules
Review and post seminar procedures
Tips for Teachers
 During
the seminar:
 Begin
with an opening question that has NO right
 “what
is meant by…”
 “what is your own interpretation of the reading?’
 Listen
HARD, follow each answer with another
question if necessary
 Keep students focused (clarification, paraphrase,
insist on standards of rigor, etc.)
 Allow for pauses
 Take notes
Tips for Teachers
the seminar:
a debriefing
 Have
students write a reflection
 Debrief the topic
 Debrief the process
 Many
teachers choose not to assign a grade for
 Many prefer to assign a culminating written
assignment or essay
Happy Reading!