Teaching with Instructional Software • Q1) a) did you see any instructional software used in the classroom during your prac experience? If yes, explain the example of it and if it was effective. b) what instructional software from the reading would you implement into your classroom and why? Give specific examples from the reading. • Q2) Discuss the challenges and benefits as a teacher for using instructional software in the classroom • Q3) There are several constructivist views on the five instructional software functions. Do you believe these views to be true or do you believe that teachers play a role in determining if a software is appropriate for the needs of the students? Our questions… QUESTION 1: a) did you see any instructional software used in the classroom during your prac experience? If yes, explain the example of it and if it was effective. b) what instructional software from the reading would you implement into your classroom and why? Give specific examples from the reading. QUESTION 2 Discuss the challenges and benefits as a teacher for using instructional software in the classroom. Consider from an organisational perspective, as well as the five functions and Integrated Learning Systems (ILSs) • Availability of computers • Teacher knowledge of the program, and how to use it • Choosing the right program with the right functions • Meeting outcomes & preparing for testing • Cost • Educational References Organisational Challenges Drill-and-practice Exercises in which students work example items, usually one at a time, and receive feedback on their correctness Benefits • Immediate feedback • Student motivation • Saving teacher time Challenges • Perceived misuses • Criticism by constructivists Tutorial An entire instructional sequence similar to a teacher’s classroom instruction on a topic • • • • • • Benefits Branching tutorials allows for progress reports Incorporates drill and practice; immediate feedback to students Self-contained, self-paced unit of instruction Can allow students who struggle to re-learn or re-visit a topic Advanced students to move ahead & learn something new Provides schools with opportunities to teach a topic where the teacher is unavailable • • • • Challenges Tutorials which require a lot of reading Criticism by constructivists Lack of good products Reflect only one instructional approach Simulation A computerized model of a real or imagined system that is designed to teach how the system works. Learners usually must choose tasks to do and the order in which to do them. There are 2 types: those that teach about something, and those that teach how to do something. Challenges Benefits • Accuracy of models • Compress time • Misuse of simulations • Slow down processes • Get students involved • Make experimentation safe • Make the impossible possible • Save money & other resources • Allow repetition with variables • Allow observation of complex processes Instructional Games Designed to increase motivation by adding game rules and/or competition to learning activities Benefits • Motivation Challenges • Learning vs. fun • Confusion of game rules & real life • Inefficient learning Problem-solving Designed especially for this purpose, may focus on fostering component skills in, or approaches to general problem-solving ability, or it may provide opportunities to practice solving various kinds of content area problems. Benefits • Improved interest & motivation • Prevents inert knowledge • Constructivist Challenges • Names vs. skills • Software claims vs. effectiveness • Possible negative effects • Transfer Integrated Learning Systems Systems that offer computer-based instruction & other resources to support instruction, along with summary reports of student progress through the instruction; all are provided through networked or online sources. They offer a variety of instructional techniques in one place, usually as a curriculum package complete with technical maintenance and teacher training. Benefits Challenges • Provides combination of the • The cost materials above, therefore • Research on achievement duplicates the benefits • No predictability found in • Networked or online research • Easy to use • Concerns about the role of • Frees the time up for ILSs teachers • Teachers can personalize instructional activities Question 3 There are several constructivist views on the five instructional software functions. Do you believe these views to be true or do you believe that teachers play a role in determining if a software is appropriate for the needs of the students? Constructivism is a theory of knowledge that argues that human generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas. Learning is based on students’ active participation in problem solving and critical thinking in relation to an activity which they find relevant and engaging. Definition For Example: Drill & Practice • Drill-and-practice software for many people is considered an outdated approach to teaching. Many believe that if students are practising isolated skills, the process contradicts the move for students to learn and use skills in an integrated way. Specifically in relation to the trends in the new curriculum. Tutorial • Tutorials are criticized because they deliver directed instruction. This approach may not allow students the chance to generate their own knowledge through hands on experience. Students are simply told what to do and don’t have the chance to explore within their own learning. Constructivist Views of the Five Functions Do you believe the constructivist views within the reading? Why/why not? Do teachers play a role? Can you think of an example? What role do teachers play?