One-Word Modifiers:
Adjectives and Adverbs
Lesson 6
Joseph C. Blumenthal
Reviewing Basic Sentence Patterns
Until this point we have been
dealing mainly with only the
framework of sentences—subjects,
verbs, and sometimes complements.
Brakes cause accidents.
Does this sentence contain any words
that are not part of its framework?
(Yes, No)
Reviewing Basic Sentence Patterns
Until this point we have been
dealing mainly with only the
framework of sentences—subjects,
verbs, and sometimes complements.
Brakes cause accidents.
Does this sentence contain any words
that are not part of its framework?
(Yes, No)
Reviewing Basic Sentence Patterns
To supply additional information
about the various parts of the
sentence framework, we use
modifiers.
Poor brakes cause many accidents.
This sentence contains two modifying
words that are not part of its
framework. These two words are:
________ and ________.
Reviewing Basic Sentence Patterns
To supply additional information
about the various parts of the
sentence framework, we use
modifiers.
Poor brakes cause many accidents.
This sentence contains two modifying
words that are not part of its
framework. These two words are:
__ Poor __ and _ many __.
Reviewing Basic Sentence Patterns
Poor brakes cause many accidents.
The word Poor modifies the noun ______.
The word many modifies the noun ______.
Reviewing Basic Sentence Patterns
Poor brakes cause many accidents.
The word Poor modifies the noun brakes.
The word many modifies the noun ______.
Reviewing Basic Sentence Patterns
Poor brakes cause many accidents.
The word Poor modifies the noun brakes.
The word many modifies the noun accidents.
Words that modify nouns and pronouns are
adjectives.
Adjectives modify ________ different
class of words. (How many?)
Words that modify nouns and pronouns are
adjectives.
Adjectives modify ___two__ different
class of words. (How many?)
An adjective makes the meaning of a
noun or pronoun more exact by telling
what kind, which one(s), or how many.
Which adjective tells what kind?
these roads wide roads three roads
An adjective makes the meaning of a
noun or pronoun more exact by telling
what kind, which one(s), or how many.
Which adjective tells what kind?
these roads wide roads three roads
Which adjective points out which one?
comfortable chairs one chair this chair
Which adjective points out which one?
comfortable chairs one chair this chair
Which adjective tells how many?
modern houses these houses several houses
Which adjective tells how many?
modern houses these houses several houses
This sentence contains three nouns:
Three students received perfect scores
on this test.
How many adjectives does this
sentence contain?
This sentence contains three nouns:
Three students received perfect scores
on this test.
How many adjectives does this
sentence contain? three
This sentence contains three nouns:
Three students received perfect scores
on this test.
Each adjective comes (before, after)
the noun it modifies.
This sentence contains three nouns:
Three students received perfect scores
on this test.
Each adjective comes (before, after)
the noun it modifies.
Besides coming right before the nouns
they modify, adjectives are sometimes
found in another position.
The car is blue.
The eggs are fresh.
The house looks new.
The adjectives in these sentences
follow linking verbs and are
therefore (subject compliments,
direct objects).
Besides coming right before the nouns
they modify, adjectives are sometimes
found in another position.
The car is blue.
The eggs are fresh.
The house looks new.
The adjectives in these sentences
follow linking verbs and are
therefore (subject compliments,
direct objects).
The car is blue.
The eggs are fresh.
The house looks new.
When adjectives are subject
compliments, they come (before,
after) the nouns they modify.
The car is blue.
The eggs are fresh.
The house looks new.
When adjectives are subject
compliments, they come (before,
after) the nouns they modify.
a. Melba Moore has an excellent voice.
b. Melba Moore’s voice is excellent.
Does the adjective excellent come
after the noun it modifies in
sentence a or b?
a. Melba Moore has an excellent voice.
b. Melba Moore’s voice is excellent.
Does the adjective excellent come
after the noun it modifies in
sentence a or b?
Adjectives normally come before the
nouns they modify except when
they are ________ compliments.
Adjectives normally come before the
nouns they modify except when
they are _subject_ compliments.
Most people are honest.
The two adjectives—Most and
honest—modify the noun
__________. (which noun?)
Most people are honest.
The two adjectives—Most and
honest—modify the noun
__people___. (which noun?)
We very seldom use adjectives
before pronouns as we do before
nouns. We say, “a pretty girl,” but
not “a pretty she”; “a new book,”
not “ a new it.”
She looks very pretty. It is new.
In these sentences, the adjectives
come (before, after) the pronouns
they modify.
We very seldom use adjectives
before pronouns as we do before
nouns. We say, “a pretty girl,” but
not “a pretty she”; “a new book,”
not “ a new it.”
She looks very pretty. It is new.
In these sentences, the adjectives
come (before, after) the pronouns
they modify.
We have seen that adjectives
answer the questions What kind?
Which one(s)? and How many?
About nouns and __________.
We have seen that adjectives
answer the questions What kind?
Which one(s)? and How many?
About nouns and _pronouns__.
We need another class of words to
answer the questions that we
might ask about the action verbs.
George drove. (When? Where? How?
How much? How often?)
Are the questions in parentheses
about George or drove?
We need another class of words to
answer the questions that we
might ask about the action verbs.
George drove. (When? Where? How?
How much? How often?)
Are the questions in parentheses
about George or drove?
George drove safely.
Which question does the word safely
answer?
When? Where? How? How much? How often?
George drove safely.
Which question does the word safely
answer?
When? Where? How? How much? How often?
George drove yesterday.
Which question does the word
yesterday answer?
When? Where? How? How much? How often?
George drove yesterday.
Which question does the word
yesterday answer?
When? Where? How? How much? How often?
George drove frequently.
Which question does the word
frequently answer?
When? Where? How? How much? How often?
George drove frequently.
Which question does the word
frequently answer?
When? Where? How? How much? How often?
George drove away.
Which question does the word away
answer?
When? Where? How? How much? How often?
George drove away.
Which question does the word away
answer?
When? Where? How? How much? How often?
Words that modify verbs are called
adverbs. The fact that the word
adverb contains the word verb
will help you to remember that
adverbs modify __________.
Words that modify verbs are called
adverbs. The fact that the word
adverb contains the word verb
will help you to remember that
adverbs modify __verbs___.
Many adverbs—especially those that
tell how—end with –ly. In fact, we
form many adverbs by adding –ly
to adjectives: polite—politely,
graceful—gracefully, fearless—
fearlessly.
A carful person drives carefully.
The adverb in this sentence is
________.
Many adverbs—especially those that
tell how—end with –ly. In fact, we
form many adverbs by adding –ly
to adjectives: polite—politely,
graceful—gracefully, fearless—
fearlessly.
A carful person drives carefully.
The adverb in this sentence is
carefully.
We have seen that adjectives have a
fixed position in the sentence—
usually before the words they
modify. Most adverbs, by
contrast, are very movable.
I finally finished the final chapter.
The word that can be shifted to
another position is the (adjective
final, adverb finally).
We have seen that adjectives have a
fixed position in the sentence—
usually before the words they
modify. Most adverbs, by
contrast, are very movable.
I finally finished the final chapter.
The word that can be shifted to
another position is the (adjective
final, adverb finally).
* Our friends * have * come * for dinner *.
Can the adverb often be inserted in
the sentence at each point
indicated by an asterisk (*)?
(Yes, No)
* Our friends * have * come * for dinner *.
Can the adverb often be inserted in
the sentence at each point
indicated by an asterisk (*)?
(Yes, No)
Because adverbs are often moveable,
we frequently find them several words
away from the verbs they modify.
Aunt Mary talks about politics
continually.
The adverb continually modifies the
verb __________.
Because adverbs are often moveable,
we frequently find them several words
away from the verbs they modify.
Aunt Mary talks about politics
continually.
The adverb continually modifies the
verb __ talks __.
a. One of the windows occasionally
sticks.
b. One of the windows sticks
occasionally.
c. Occasionally one of the windows
sticks.
In which sentence is the adverb
farthest away from the verb it
modifies?
a. One of the windows occasionally
sticks.
b. One of the windows sticks
occasionally.
c. Occasionally one of the windows
sticks.
In which sentence is the adverb
farthest away from the verb it
modifies?
There are hundreds of adverbs that
give information about verbs. In
addition, there are some special
adverbs that control the “power” of
adjectives and other adverbs.
very hot somewhat hot rather hot so hot
quite hot extremely hot slightly hot too hot
The italicized adverbs modify the
(adjective, adverb) hot.
There are hundreds of adverbs that
give information about verbs. In
addition, there are some special
adverbs that control the “power” of
adjectives and other adverbs.
very hot somewhat hot rather hot so hot
quite hot extremely hot slightly hot too hot
The italicized adverbs modify the
(adjective, adverb) hot.
very awkwardly somewhat awkwardly rather
awkwardly so awkwardly quite awkwardly
extremely awkwardly slightly awkwardly
too awkwardly
The italicized adverbs modify the
(adjective, adverb) awkwardly.
very awkwardly somewhat awkwardly rather
awkwardly so awkwardly quite awkwardly
extremely awkwardly slightly awkwardly
too awkwardly
The italicized adverbs modify the
(adjective, adverb) awkwardly.
Too many people vote without sufficient
information.
The adjective many modifies the
noun people.
What adverb modifies the adjective
many? ___________
Too many people vote without sufficient
information.
The adjective many modifies the
noun people.
What adverb modifies the adjective
many? ___Too ____
Lois speaks French very fluently.
The adverb fluently modifies the
verb speaks.
What adverb modifies the adverb
fluently? _________
Lois speaks French very fluently.
The adverb fluently modifies the
verb speaks.
What adverb modifies the adverb
fluently? __very__
The lake was slightly rough.
The adverb slightly modifies the
_______ rough.
The lake was slightly rough.
The adverb slightly modifies the
_adjective_ rough.
(or subject compliment)
Jack can type quite rapidly.
The adverb quite modifies the
_________ rapidly.
Jack can type quite rapidly.
The adverb quite modifies the
__adverb___ rapidly.
You have now seen that adverbs can
modify three different clauses of
words.
Besides modifying verbs, adverbs
can also modify other modifiers.
By “other modifiers” we mean
adjectives and _________.
You have now seen that adverbs can
modify three different clauses of
words.
Besides modifying verbs, adverbs
can also modify other modifiers.
By “other modifiers” we mean
adjectives and __adverbs__.
In this and the following frames, the
position of the periods should tell
you whether the missing word
would be an adjective or an
adverb.
Write the answers on your own paper.
Our hotel room was very…
The missing word (such as small,
shabby, or comfortable) would have to
be an…
1. (adjective, adverb).
We…find Skippy in a neighbor’s yard.
The missing word (such as often,
usually, or sometimes) would be an…
2. (adjective, adverb).
The fair will last for…days.
The missing word would be an…
3. (adjective, adverb).
We studied the road map…carefully.
The missing word would be an…
4. (adjective, adverb).
The room looks very…without the photo.
The missing word would be an…
5. (adjective, adverb).
It is…hot at the equator.
The missing word would be an…
6. (adjective, adverb).
An adjective can modify only two
classes of words: nouns and
pronouns.
7. An adverb, however, can modify ________
classes of words. (How many?)
8. What are they? (list them)
You are done!!!
Please turn in your
answers for points.