Concepts of Federalism Jamie Monogan University of Georgia September 3, 2014 Objectives By the end of this meeting, participants should be able to: • Explain how a federal system works. • Describe the role of the national, state, and local governments in Georgia politics. What Is Federalism? • Federalism – System of shared powers between two or more levels of government – Lower level of government enjoys constitutional protection from national government – National government can compel action – Example: United States under the Constitution of 1789 Contrast: Confederation • System of shared powers between two or more levels of government • Lower-level governments retain sovereignty • National government cannot compel action • Example: United States under Articles of Confederation Contrast: Unitary System • All power centralized with the national government • Lower-level governments (if they exist) only have powers if the central government delegates • Example: United Kingdom – Power centralized in London – Powers delegated to subnational parliaments in Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales Centralization of Political Control Dynamics of Federalism Which best describes the U.S. system? • Dual Federalism – Separate spheres of power • Cooperative Federalism – Shared spheres of power • Intergovernmentalism – Mixture of dual and cooperative federalism – Shared spheres in particular policy areas Responsibility of Governments Limits of Federalism • The Constitution sets some clear limits – States cannot coin money or negotiate treaties – Supremacy clause holds that national laws trump state laws if in conflict • The Constitution also creates ambiguities – Necessary and proper clause – Commerce clause • Court interpretation has changed over time – Tenth Amendment State Governments • Most are similar in structure to federal government – Bicameral (Exception: Nebraska) – Gubernatorial powers vary by state – Professionalization of legislatures varies by state – Key distinction is presence of direct democracy—initiative, referendum, recall Local Governments • More variation than state governments – Mayoral—large cities, mayor has considerable power – Council-manager—small-to-medium cities – Commission—declining in number due to collective action problems Assignments • For Friday: Read Bullock & Gaddie, Chapter 8 • For Monday: Read Kollman, pp. 82-99 • Chapter 4 concept map exercise due at 11:59pm in one week (Wed., Sept. 10). –Login to ELC to complete.